Antimony doped tin oxide is probably the most extensively studied compound


Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) is probably the most extensively studied compound among conductive oxides. The bulk and surface chemistry of SnO2 is well-studied and has been the subject of a detailed review. Various surface additives and lattice dopants have been reported, and the most thoroughly studied is antimony. Tin oxide-based materials have been used for various applications, from gas sensing to Li-ion battery anodes. The use of tin oxide-based materials (among many other oxides) as Li-ion battery anodes has recently been reviewed. The working principle of SnO2 anodes has been studied in detail. It is based on lithium intercalation followed by an irreversible reduction of tin oxide to metallic tin under Li2O formation and further reversible lithiation by alloying to form LixSn. In the context of our present work, it is important to note that lithium intercalation does not commence at potentials above 1.5 V, tin oxide reduction and Li2O formation require potentials below 1 V, and alloying only starts around 0.6 V. Recently, the use of ruthenium-catalyzed ITO (indium-doped tin oxide) and ruthenium-catalyzed ATO as carbon-free cathodes for non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries have been demonstrated. The latter study pointed out that non-catalyzed ATO cathodes failed due to insufficient electrical conductivity.

In contrast, for Ru-ATO, good cyclability, and outstanding capacity were shown. Li2O2 was identified as the only discharge product and was shown to form toroids at a discharge rate of 0.08 μA/cmBET2. Here it is interesting to note that at least for carbon-based Li-air cathodes, the formation of toroids at low current densities in glyme-based electrolyte solutions has been attributed to the presence of water/protons in the cell, which has also been shown to result in dramatically increased discharge capacities. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective ATO, or if you require the latest price of ATO, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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