Basic knowledge of silicon nitride
Overview of silicon nitride
Silicon nitride is an inorganic substance with the chemical formula Si3N4. It is an important structural ceramic material with high hardness, inherent lubricity, and wear resistance. It is an atomic crystal; it is resistant to oxidation at high temperatures. Moreover, it can resist the impact of cold and heat. It will not be broken if it is heated to above 1000°C in the air, cooled rapidly, and then heated rapidly. It is precise because of the excellent characteristics of silicon nitride ceramic that people often use it to manufacture mechanical components such as bearings, turbine blades, mechanical seal rings, permanent molds, and so on. If silicon nitride ceramics, which are resistant to high temperatures and difficult to transfer heat, are used to make the heating surfaces of engine components, not only can the quality of the diesel engine be improved, fuel savings and thermal efficiency can be improved.
The crystal structure of silicon nitride
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) has three crystal structures, namely α, β, and γ three phases. The two phases of α and β are the most frequently occurring forms of Si3N4 and can be prepared under normal pressure. The γ phase can only be synthesized under high pressure and high temperature, and its hardness can reach 35GPa.
Application of silicon nitride
Silicon nitride is used as a high-grade refractory material. For example, SI3N4-SIC refractory is used in blast furnace body and other parts in cooperation with sic; when it is used in combination with BN as SI3N4-BN material, it is used in horizontal continuous casting separation ring. SI3N4-BN series horizontal continuous casting separation ring is a fine-structure ceramic material with a uniform structure and high mechanical strength. It has good thermal shock resistance and will not be wetted by molten steel, which meets the process requirements of continuous casting.
In addition, silicon nitride can also be applied to solar cells. After the silicon nitride film is plated by the PECVD method, it can not only be used as an anti-reflection film to reduce the reflection of the incident light but also, during the deposition of the silicon nitride film, the hydrogen atoms of the reaction product enter the silicon nitride film and the silicon wafer, Played a role in passivating defects. The ratio of the number of silicon nitride to silicon atoms is not strictly 4:3 but fluctuates within a certain range according to different process conditions. The physical properties of the film corresponding to different atomic ratios are different.
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