Experimental procedure of ATO


All chemical reagents used to prepare Sn.918Sb.109O2 were of AR grade. In the typical synthesis, 5-10 ml of hydrochloric acid was added in double distilled water. At the moment, SnCl2. 2H2O and SbCl3 in molar ratio 1:4 was mixed to above solution. Further, ammonium hydroxide was added drop by drop to the above-mixed solution. A small amount (5- 10 ml) of ply-ethylene glycol was added as a capping agent. Vigorous magnetic stirring was done for 18-24 h to ensure a complete and intimate reaction between the various components. The product was dried for 5-8 h at 80°C in an oven and calcined at 400°C for three h, resulting in complete crystallization to obtain Sn.918Sb.109O2 into powder form. Then it was examined with wide-angle XRD analysis (X-Pert, PRO PANalytical XRD system, Netherlands). The crystallite size of powdered material was calculated from the X-ray line broadening using 4 Debye-Scherer's equation. The powder pellets were made by a hydraulic press machine (M. B. Instruments, Delhi, India) under a uniaxial pressure of 616 MPa at ambient temperature. Each pellet was annealed at 200°C, 400°C, and 600°C, put within an Agpellet-Ag electrode system, and exposed to humidity in a specially designed humidity chamber. Potassium sulfate solution in a dish was put within the chamber to increase the humidity from 10% to 95%, i.e., it acts as a humidifier.

In contrast, potassium hydroxide solution acts as a dehumidifier, i.e., to decrease humidity from 95% to 10%. Electrical resistance was measured using Keithley Electrometer (Model: 6514A). Then humidity sensing of each pellet for different annealing temperatures was investigated. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective ATO, or if you require the latest price of ATO, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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