What is the lithium Intercalation Mechanism of Graphite?

Europe's largest economy, Germany, recently activated an emergency plan to manage gas supplies that the natural gas could be rationed if supplies are disrupted or disrupted by a stand-off over Russian demands to pay for fuel in rubles.  

German Vice-Chancellor, minister of economy and climate protection, said Germany's gas supplies were secure for now, but he urged consumers and businesses to reduce consumption, saying "every kilowatt of electricity counts." 

Germany's gas network regulator can ration gas if supplies run short. Plants would be the first to be affected. Special treatment will be provided to private families, hospitals, and other important institutions.  

Half of Germany's 41.5 million households use natural gas for heating, and industry consumption accounts for a third of the country's 100 billion cubic meters of gas demand in 2021.  

The price of many energy and commodities like the Graphite could be affected.


Graphite has good conductivity, high crystallinity, and a well-layered structure. It is very suitable for repeated intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions. It is currently the most widely used and most mature negative electrode material. After lithium ions are intercalated between the graphite layers, a lithium intercalation compound LixC6 (0≤x≤1) is formed, and the theoretical capacity can reach 372mAh/g (x=1). The reaction formula is: xLi++6C+xe-→LixC6

Lithium-ion intercalation changes the stacking mode between graphite layers from ABAB to AAAA.

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Graphite modification treatment

Since the graphite interlayer spacing (d≤0.34nm) is smaller than the crystal plane interlayer spacing (0.37nm) of the graphite lithium intercalation compound LixC6, the graphite layer spacing changes during the charging and discharging process, which is easy to cause the graphite layer to peel off, pulverize, and also occur. Lithium ions and organic solvent molecules co-intercalate into the graphite layer, and the organic solvent decomposes, affecting the battery cycle performance.

Through graphite modification, such as oxidation on the surface of graphite and coating of polymer pyrolytic carbon, composite graphite with a core-shell structure can be formed, improving the charge and discharge performance of graphite and increasing the specific capacity.

Other anode materials

At present, graphite is the mainstream commercial lithium battery negative electrode material. Its theoretical gram capacity is 372mAh/g. The graphite negative electrode material with better performance on the market can reach 360mAh/g, and the gram capacity gradually tends to the limit value. Although graphite as a negative electrode material has disadvantages such as low gram capacity and cycle deviation, because of the high-cost performance of graphite-based negative electrode materials, it will not be replaced by new materials immediately. The specific reasons are as follows:

1. The new anode material technology is immature, and it will take a long time for performance improvement;

2. The price of new anode materials is higher, and the price advantage of graphite anodes is obvious;

3. The negative electrode material needs to be used in combination with the positive electrode material, electrolyte, etc., and the specific capacity of the current positive electrode material is generally low.

High-quality graphite supplier

Luoyang Moon & Star New Energy Technology Co., LTD, founded on October 17, 2008, is a high-tech enterprise committed to developing, producing, processing, selling, and technical services of lithium-ion battery anode materials. After more than 10 years of development, the company has gradually developed into a diversified product structure with natural graphite, artificial graphite, composite graphite, intermediate phase, and other negative materials (silicon-carbon materials, etc.). The products are widely used in high-end lithium-ion digital power and energy storage batteries. If you are looking for Lithium battery anode material, click on the needed products and send us an inquiry:sales@graphite-corp.com

 


Recently, the Turkish government announced that the Turkish President has signed a presidential decree to provide incentives for its Black Sea gas field development projects, including tax exemptions and other preferential measures.  

With a fixed investment of 145.1 billion Turkish lira ($10 billion), the project will employ 1,018 people and produce 14 billion standard cubic meters of gas per year, the decree reads. The incentives involved include tariff and VAT exemptions, as well as a range of tax cuts.

In June 2021, Turkish drill ships discovered 135 billion cubic meters of natural gas in the Sakaria field in the Black Sea, bringing Turkey's total gas discoveries in the region to 540 billion cubic meters.  

Turkey imports almost all of its annual gas consumption of about 50 billion cubic meters.  

Except for natural gas, the supply and prices of many other Graphite will continue to be influenced by international situations.

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