Graphite, an ancient and young material |
The graphite world demand has increased steadily in recent years due to the global economic recovery. USGS reports that the primary countries producing graphite in the world include China, India Brazil Canada North Korea Russia Czech Republic. As heating and acid leaching technologies improve, graphite purity is rising, allowing for new high-tech applications. With the advent of purification technologies, graphite is now widely used for carbon composite materials, electronic industry, friction material, lubrication and other applications. The graphite paper industry, which is made up of flexible graphite, has good prospects. Fuel cells are also a major market.
Elements of graphiteGraphite can be an allotrope. It is a grayish-black opaque solid that has a density of 2,25 grams/cubic centimeter. It has a melting and boiling point of 3652°C. At 687 ° C, combustion with oxygen produces carbon dioxide. It is oxidized using strong oxidants like concentrated nitric and potassium permanganate. It can be used to make a neutron modifier in an atomic reactor, or as a lubricant and antiwear agent. It is also used to manufacture crucibles and graphite fibers for dry batteries, heat-exchangers, coolers Arclight, arc furnaces, and other items.
Graphite - Occurrence Graphite occurs in metamorphic rock, and is produced by coals or carbonaceous sediments that have been subjected either to magma or regional metamorphism. Graphite can be thought of as an allotrope for elemental Carbon. The outermost carbon atoms are connected with three more carbon atoms. It is a honeycomb-like arrangement of hexagons with a weak van der Waals force between each layer. Since every carbon atom emits a free electron, graphite acts as a conductor. Graphite, one of the softer minerals, is opaque and greasy to touch. It is opaque to the touch and feels greasy. The color can range from iron gray to steel black. The form is crystalline, lamellar (scaly), striped, layering, layered or scattered. It is corrosion-resistant and chemically inactive.
Graphite crystalline StructureGraphite, a transitional material between atomic, metal, and molecular crystalline forms, is a transitional crystal. In glass, carbon molecules in the same layer form covalent bonds by being sp2-fixed. Each carbon is linked to three other carbons. Six carbons atoms stretch and form a sheet from a regular hexagonal structure. Carbon atoms with the same orbital overlap each other. Delocalized bond electrons are able to move freely and be excited in the crystal structure. Graphite is a metal-like material that can conduct heat and electricity. Due to the large distance between the layers, the Van Der Waals forces are small and the layers slide. Graphite has a lower density than diamonds and is soft and smooth. Because of the bond between the carbon atoms that are on the same plane, graphite has a high melting point and chemical properties which are stable. A mixed crystal, due to the way it bonds, is generally referred as graphite.
Graphite is a hexagonal system of crystals with a complete cleavage. The cleavage surfaces are dominated by molecules and have a weak affinity to molecules.
Spheroidal flakes are made from high-quality flake graphite with high carbon content. The graphite surface is modified using advanced processing technologies. It produces graphite in different finenesses resembling oval spheres.
Spheroidal chartiteSpherical chartite materials are flat, have a low charge potential, good electrical conductivity (high crystallinity), and a theoretically high lithium insertion. They also have a low cost. They are anode materials used to produce lithium-ion batteries at home and overseas. They possess excellent chemical and electrical stability, a high capacity for charge and discharging, and a long cycle life.
In order to produce spherical Graphite, dry graphite is crushed, trimmed and separated magnetically in the workshop for spherical Graphite. The purified spherical carbon is then used to produce high-temperature graphite.
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