Manganese dioxide occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite


Manganese dioxide (MnO2) occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, about 62–63% of manganese. The most important use of MnO2 is in primary Leclanché (carbon–zinc) and alkaline batteries. This material is used to obtain the spinel structure of the cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries (e.g., LiMn2O4). MnO2 needed for the production of batteries must have high purity and high electrochemical activity. Among its several allotropic forms, electrochemical activity is the highest for γ-MnO2. Hence, it is the best material for battery applications. Furnace dust is a problematic by-product of the ferromanganese (FeMn) and silicomanganese (SiMn) industries. Its storage is a long-term environmental concern, as it requires efficient technologies for its recycling. The furnace dust contains high concentrations of manganese oxides, with up to 40% or more concentrate. The recycling of the dust back into the ferroalloy furnaces would not only reduce that environmental liability but also decrease the fresh ore consumption. Unfortunately, this is not possible due to the high volatile content of furnace dust and its fineness. Many manganese ores contain substantial amounts of potassium (up to 2–3%). Much of this volatilizes and reports to the fume during smelting. The concern regarding the recycling of the fume is that volatile transition metals, such as zinc, can build up due to repeated recycling. One of Elkem's submerged arc furnaces producing high carbon FeMn alloy had a severe eruption on December 9, 1992, due to an accumulation of volatiles, which caused unstable structure formations in the furnace. The limited literature on recycling FeMn or SiMn furnace fines for manganese recovery, mainly through hydrometallurgical treatments. Nkosi et al. (2011) obtained a 49% Mn recovery rate from SiMn-submerged arc furnace dust through direct atmospheric leaching using a diluted sulfuric acid solution. If you are looking for high quality, high purity and cost-effective Manganese dioxide, or if you require the latest price of Manganese dioxide, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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