Nickel oxide with superconductivity

Is nickel oxide toxic?
Clinical features: Acute exposure Although nickel oxide is a lung irritant, acute exposure is unlikely to cause serious poisoning.

Is nickel oxide an alkali?
It is a black solid, insoluble in all solvents, but will be corroded by alkalis and acids. It is an integral part of nickel-metal hydride batteries and nickel-iron batteries.

Does nickel form an oxide layer?
In the temperature range of 700-1100°C, the oxidation of the homogeneous pure nickel substrate will produce an attached nickel oxide protective layer.

How do we prepare pure nickel?
It can be extracted by roasting to NiO and then reducing it with carbon. The Mond process is used to make pure nickel, where the impure nickel reacts with carbon monoxide (CO) to form Ni(CO)4, which is then decomposed to 99.99% Ni at a temperature of 200°C. The content of nickel in the earth's crust is 80 ppm.

Uses of nickel
Nickel steel is used for armor plates. Other nickel alloys are also used in marine propeller shafts and turbine blades. Nickel is used in batteries, including rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries used in hybrid vehicles. Nickel has a long history of use in coins.

How do you dissolve nickel oxide?
Nickel oxide is somewhat soluble in potassium cyanide, which will dissolve the oxide and form nickel cyanide Ni(CN)2 and potassium tetracyanocarbonate K2Ni(CN)4, but potassium cyanide is very toxic.

Is nickel oxide solid?
Through this oxidation, 99% of soluble nickel has been recovered as nickel hydroxide-hydroxide (NiOOH) precipitate. The resulting compound, nickel oxide-nickel hydroxide, is a black solid, which is easy to settle and easy to separate.

Rapid Hydrocarbon Oxidation of High Valence Nickel-Fluoride Complex
When looking for highly reactive oxidants, we determined that high-valent metal fluorides are potentially strong oxidants. The high-valent Ni-F complex [NiIII(F)(L)] (2,L = N,N'-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate) is composed of [NiII(F)(L)]-(1) is oxidized by selectfluor. Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by 1H / 19F NMR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. It was found that complex 2 is a highly reactive oxidant in the oxidation of hydrocarbons. Kinetic data and product analysis proved the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen atom transfer. Compared with the most reactive high-valent metal oxidant, the determined oxidation rate constant of 9,10-dihydroanthracene (k2 = 29 = m-1 s-1) is favorable. Compared with [NiIII(Cl)(L)], the reaction rate of complex 2 is increased by 2000-4500 times, and it also shows a higher kinetic isotope effect value. The fluorination of hydrocarbon oxide and phosphine is realized. Our results provide interesting directions for the design of catalysts for the oxidation and fluorination of hydrocarbons.

The first report on the superconductivity of nickel oxide materials
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have produced the first nickel oxide material with obvious superconducting properties. This material is an unconventional superconductor with great potential, which is similar to cuprate superconductors. Since the discovery of cuprate superconductors in 1986, scientists have been hoping to use it to revolutionize electronic equipment and power transmission technology. The similarities between nickelate and cuprate have lighted up a new "flame of thinking" for scientists: can nickelate also achieve high-temperature superconductivity? But nickelate and cuprate also have significant differences. For example, the type of magnetic properties of nickelate is very different from that of cuprate. This may overturn the dominant theory about the working mechanism of non-traditional superconductors. Danfeng Li, a postdoctoral researcher at the Stanford Institute of Materials and Energy Sciences, led the related research and published the research results in the journal Nature. George Sawatzky, a professor of physics and chemistry at the University of British Columbia, wrote a review article for Li et al.’s paper: “This is a very important discovery. We need to rethink the electronic structure and superconducting mechanism of these superconducting materials. The academic community will invest a lot of money. In the research of this kind of new materials with manpower and energy, various experimental and theoretical work will be gradually improved.
 
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