Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles at Interfaces |
The self-assembly at interfaces of nanoparticles has been the focus of many studies ever since Pickering's emulsion first became known in the early 20th century. This phenomenon is the fact that solid particles spontaneously migrate on fluid interface, forming monolayers or multilayers, and act as the "surfactant", stabilizing the emulsion. Food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other industries have a great interest in the use of interfaces to guide the assembly of nanoparticles. Reduced interfacial power is a major driving force in liquid interface assembly. Self-assembly can be controlled through the size of the nanoparticles, as well as chemical characteristics of ligands attached to the particle surface.
Due to their large oil/water interface, emulsions can be thermodynamically instabile. In order to achieve a stable emulsion it is necessary to add a third substance - an emulsifier - into the system.Pickering Emulsion stabilization is currently based on the adsorption and formation of single-layer or multilayer films at the oil/water interface.
Nanoparticles - Structure Template
The research into the self assembly behavior of nanoparticles interface has increased in recent years, particularly after the discovery Pickering emulsion.
In the past few years, research has focused on using nanoparticles in capsule preparation as a template. In the present day, there are several methods that can be used to prepare capsules of nanometer and micron sizes. These include the enveloping technique, solvent-evaporation technique, emulsion-polymerization process, etc.
Nanoparticle interface self-assembly
Nano-particles are being developed and applied (CdSe etc.). The surface functionalization of nanoparticles has become an important concern.
Janus particles can self-assemble into an interface.
De Gennes proposed the "Janus Particle" and the applications for Janus particles were extensively studied, particularly in the areas of drug carriers, electronics, optics, biosensing, and emulsion stabilizers. Janus, originally, was intended to be two gods in Rome. Janus nanoparticles consist of particles with different chemical surfaces and polarities. By appropriate modification, the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the Janus particle surface can be controlled to adjust its distribution at the oil-water interface.
Interface assembly of Nanorods
Recently, anisotropic Nanorods have gained increasing attention. Many types of inorganic nanometers rods, including CdSe, CdS, Co, Au, can be synthesized with the help of technology for nanoparticle synthesis. The performance of nanorod composites in optical and magnetic fields has been demonstrated by studies. Due to the particle size, surface morphology and shape of nanorods, their interfacial assemblies exhibit properties that are different from those of isotropic particles.
Interface assembly of bionanoparticles
The size and shape monodispersity and the modification of bio-nanoparticle surfaces proteins are useful for particle formation, diagnostics, and tissue engineering using microarrays. So, biomaterials prepared by self-assembly at the interface of bionanoparticles. Recent years have seen a rise in interest.
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