Preparation and application of titanium nitride thin films TRUNNANAO
1. TiN films preparation methods The first research into TiN thin films began as far back as 1960. However, the challenges in preparing devices and materials led to very little research. As film preparation technology improved, TiN films were more accessible at home as well as abroad. Also, there was an increase in the variety of preparation methods. Today, there has been great progress. TiN films are prepared using two methods: physical vapor and chemical deposition.
1.1 physical vapor deposition (PVD)
1.1.1 Evaporation by electron beam
Because of their inability to combine with substrate and lack of repeatability, TiN thin film prepared using vacuum coating are not often used abroad and at home. Electron beam evaporation, which is currently the most commonly used method for vacuum coating at home and overseas, is still preferred. An electron beam is used to heat a substance to evaporate. The characteristics include high energy densities, higher thermal efficiency and less thermal conduction, radiation and heat loss, and can be used to reduce reaction between container and plating materials. TiN coating purity can be improved.
1.1.2 Sputtering coat method
For TiN thin films prepared by magnetron, there are two major techniques: dc magnetic sputtering or rf magnetron. Non-equilibrium magnetron and reactive sputtering were recently developed. Due to its special advantages, the reactive sputtering technique was used for TiN film preparation. Non-equilibrium magnetron is a popular method of sputtering at home as well as abroad. TiN films prepared by magnetronsputtering have the following advantages: high sputtering rates, low substrate temperature rises, good membrane base adhesions, device stability, easy control and operation. It does have some limitations, however, like a lower deposition rate or lower efficiency. This is not good for decreasing deposition cost. Magnetron sputtering is limited to fields that need higher TiN coating, such optics and microelectronics.
1.1.3 Arc ion plating
TiN coating has evolved from a relatively new technology to be used worldwide in high-speed steel production and the manufacture of cemented carbide tools. Ion plating technology has seen great advancements in the last few years. The most common technology used for ion-plating is now arc ion, or multi-arc. Ion plating has become the sole production method of titanium nitride. When TiN coating is deposited by arc Ion plating, factors such as arc current and substrate negative bias, temperature, partial pressure nitrogen, cavity pressure and substrate pressure all affect its structure.
1.1.4 Plasma Immersion Ion Implant Technology
Conrad was the first to invent the plasma immersion ion implant (PIII), a method that prepares TiN films using TiN technology. He found that PIII technology is capable of simultaneously injecting and processing a number of workpieces. The equipment and process of making TiN films is simple. This can reduce production costs and have a high application value. Plasma immersion Ion Injection /k is a method of deposition in which the plasma elements are vertically injected onto all surfaces using strong electric field forces.
1.2 chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
1.2.1 general chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method
A new method for making inorganic materials is the CVD method. The technology used to make TiN films using the CVD method has been very well developed internationally. Sandwick (a Swedish firm) used CVD technology in the early 1960s to deposit TiN coatings onto cemented carbide tools. This technology was rapidly commercialized due to its low cost and significantly longer life span. The chemical vapor deposition method of N coating has many advantages over PVD. It is fast in film formation, easy crystallization, and lower radiation damage. Unfortunately, this device can only be used in very specific environments, such as extreme temperatures or high vacuum.
1.2.2 plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
In the preparation and application of Ti since the 1990's the pulsed DC PCVD coating technique has seen significant improvements. It can dramatically improve the performance and microstructure of the coating and was preliminarily tested in various molds and tools with clear results. The PCVD method for coating is developing rapidly at home as well as abroad. This plasma chemical vapor deposited method has the same wrapping ability as CVD. It has better wrapping properties than CVD, with fewer pinholes, internal stress, and microcrack. There are currently three options for power supply PCVD: microwave, rf, and dc.
1.2.3 laser chemical vapor deposition
It is very appealing to make thin TiN films using laser chemicalvapor deposition. Most importantly, it is capable of producing high-quality TiN film without any damage. TiN films made by this method have many applications. In fact, LCVD technology has been rapidly developed in recent years. Laser chemicalvapor deposition is the chemical vapor-deposition technique for thin films that uses a laser beam. The laser beam's energy density is high and it heats quickly, so the process can be greatly expedited. This CVD has many benefits over conventional CVD. It is low in temperature, high damage and fine processing. Laser chemical vapor deposited technology in the country has now reached an international advanced stage.
2. TiN film application
2.1 The mechanical processing industry
TiN film reduces adhesion to cutting edge materials and can improve cutting force. It also improves the quality of work pieces and increases the tool's durability. TiN films are used extensively in coating low-speed and high-speed metal cutting tools as well wood cutting tools. TiN films are worn parts with excellent wear resistance, particularly because they have low gelling. These factors, along with the fact that it is easy to apply wear in many system, like automobile piston sealing ring and various bearings or gears such as: TiN are widely used in molding tool coating technology such as automotive sheet molding tool coats.
2.2.2 Medical Industry
TiN films are light-weight, non-toxic, strong, and biocompatible. They can also be used to make implants or surgical instruments that allow for the implantation of human organs. Titanium nitride films are also excellent biocompatibility film options. Nelea et al. greatly improved mechanical properties and adhesion for hydroxyapatite films (HA), a common medical material.
Coat IF –MS2 with TiN. It is possible to improve the wear resistance for sulfur dimolybdate grease. The TIN film is covered with if-ms2. The TIN film is coated on if-ms2.
Application of solar energy: 2.4
Research into TiN thin films as a stabilizing layer for solar absorbing layers in extreme temperatures began back in 1984. Recent research has shown that (TiA1N coating was also recommended to be used for solar selective absorption layer and control windows. This is due to the excellent resistance to high temperatures of (TiAI)N coating. TiN, TiA1N coatings are used in the solar energy field. The idea is being tested and explored.
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