Silicon nitride synthesis method and forming processing
You can obtain this chemical reaction at 1300-1400degC by directly chemically reacting elemental silicon with nitrogen. Here is the chemical formula
3Si(s) + 2N2(g) -Si3N4(s)
This can be made with diimine.
SiCl4(l) + 6NH3(g) -Si(NH)2(s) + 4NH4Cl(s) (at 0 degC)
3Si(NH)2(s) -Si3N4(s) +N2(g) + 3H2(g) (at 1000 degC)
Alternativly, you can use the carbothermal reaction to produce under nitrogen at 1400-1450 degrees C.
3SiO2(s) + 6 C(s) + 2N2(g) -Si3N4(s) + 6 CO(g)
With the discovery and development of silicon Nitride in the 1950s, the first synthetic method to nitride elemental silicon powder was created. The first way to mass produce silicon nitride is through this method. The silicon nitride that is produced from this raw material may contain iron and silicate if it has low purity.
Amorphous silicon nitride is produced by diamine decomposition. To make it crystallized, it must be further annealed at 1400-1500degC under nitrogen. Presently, diamine is the second most important method for producing silicon nitride.
The easiest method to create silicon nitride is by using the carbothermal reduction process. This is also one of the most economically-friendly ways to manufacture silicon powder in the industry.
Chemical vapor deposit or plasma enhanced chemical-vapor deposition technologies are used to make film.
3SiH4(g) + 4NH3(g) -Si3N4(s) + 12H2(g) 3SiCl4(g) + 4NH3(g) -Si3N4(s) + 12 HCl(g) 3SiCl2H2(g) + 4NH3(g) -Si3N4 (s) + 6 HCl(g) + 6H2(g)
Two methods are available to deposit silicon oxide on a semiconductor substrate.
1. Utilize low-pressure, chemical vapor deposition technology to create a high temperature at very high temperatures by using a tube furnace or vertical oven.
2. It is possible to use plasma-enhanced vapor deposition technology under low temperatures.
It is different to elemental silicon in that the unit cell parameters for silicon nitride differ from those of elemental. According to the method used for deposition, tension or stress can be generated by the silicon nitride layer. You can reduce the tension by changing the parameters of the plasma-enhanced vapor deposition technique.
First silica preparation is done by sol-gel. Next, the silica gel that contains ultra-fine particles of carbon is subject to the carbothermal reduced method. Finally, silicon nitride Nanowires are obtained by nitridation. At 1200-1350degC, the silica gel's ultra-fine carbon parts are formed by decomposition glucose. There may be several reactions that are involved in the synthesis.
The method of processing the silicon nitride blob
Because it's a granular substance, processing is hard. The melting point for silicon nitride at 1850 degrees Celsius cannot be exceeded. This is because it will begin to decompose and become silicon and nitrogen. Hot press sintering is no longer acceptable. It is possible to bond silicon nitride particles together using sintering agents or binders. The liquid phase of silicon nitride will undergo some cooling and then become a solid material. The process will result in impurities because it requires the use of binding agents or sintering tools. Another method to produce purer bulk material is spark plasma sintering. In a matter of seconds, the powder compacted is pulsed. You can use this technique at temperatures between 1500 to 1700°C. You will get dense, compact silicon nitride pieces at this temperature.
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