Structural characteristics of colloidal gold and commonly used detection techniques
(1) Colloidal Gold, also known by the name gold sol, refers to a suspension made of small gold particles after the initial gold has been reduced to gold salt. A colloidal layer of gold contains an essential gold core (atomical-gold Au) as well as a double ion coating. An inner layer of negativeions (AuC122-) connects to the surface. H +, an outer ion layer, is suspended in the solution between colloids. This allows colloidal gold to remain free from dissolved ions between sols. Although the primary colloidal core is spherical, it contains a solid gold core. While the smaller colloidal-gold particles are generally spherical (which is usually 30 to 40 nm), larger particles of colloidal silver are almost all elliptical. Under an electron microscope, you can observe the particle morphology in colloidal gold.
(2) Features of colloidal silver
1. Colloidal nature. The colloidal size ranges from 1-100nm. Colloidal gold solutions are made up of tiny, stable, uniformly suspended gold particles in the liquid. Because colloidal gold has different properties than other colloids, including sensitivity to electrolytes, it is also sensitive. An electrolyte may cause the colloidal particles of gold to lose their permanent hydration. The dispersed individual gold particles will then condense and become large particles. The stability of colloidal silver can be protected by certain macromolecular materials, like proteins.
The most common method of labeling is using colloidal gold. The new technology of immunolabeling uses colloidal golden as a tracer for antigens or antibodies. These are its unique strengths. This label has seen widespread use in recent years for biological studies. It is used in almost all immunoblotting procedures. You can use it in immunology, flow cytometry, electromicroscopy and biochips.
The colloidal form of gold is composed of chloroauric (HAuCl4). This acid can be reacted with other reducing agents like white phosphorus and ascorbic acid and sodium citrate. Because it forms a negatively charged, hydrophobic glue solution it can become a stable colloidal state through static electricity. It is also known as colloidal silver. The negatively charged colloidal gold forms strong bonds with the positively charged proteins molecules in weak alkaline environments. The biological characteristics of this protein are not affected by the electrostatic bond.
Coloidal gold labeling refers to a process where proteins, such as protein, are adsorbed on the surface of colloidal golden particles. Adsorption could be caused by the presence of negative charges on colloidal gold particles. This creates a strong connection with positively charged protein groups due to electrostatic adhesion. By using the reduction method, you can make colloidal golden particles of different sizes from chloroauric acids. This small, spherical particle is able to absorb proteins well. This particle can be used non-covalently with immunoglobulins (toxins), toxins, glycoproteins/enzymes, hormones, and bovine serum albumin polypeptide conjugates. This makes it a valuable tool in clinical research as well as basic research.
Common technology for detection
Immunocolloid-based gold staining
Tissue sections or cell suspensions can be stained using colloidal-labeled antibodies. You can also use the silver developer that is based upon colloidal labels to increase the sensitivity for colloidal labeling.
Immunocolloid gold electron microscope staining
Colloidal gold is a good option for antibodies and anti-antibodies. They can also be used to combine negatively stained viruses samples with ultrathin tissue sections or negative stained tissues. It is useful for observing virus morphology, and also to detect viruses.
Dot immunogold Filtration
As a carrier for the antibody or antigen, use a microporous material (such a membrane) to first detect it. Then, seal the container and add the specimen to test. Finally, wash the membrane with colloidal gold-labeled antigen to identify the antigen.
Colloidal gold immunochromatography
In a stripe-shaped configuration, the antigen or antibody is adhered to the membrane. The colloidal gold reagent (antibody/monoclonal antibodies) is then adsorbed on to the binding pad. Add the tested sample to the testing strip at the end. It will pass the capillary reaction. Next, dissolve the colloidal golden labeling agent on the binding pad. The conjugate of test substance and gold labeling ingredient will bind specifically to this area and become trapped and aggregated. You can see the results of color development with your naked eye. A diagnostic test strip has been created using this method, making it very simple to use.
Technology for rapid gold standard reagents
A specific antibody must first be attached to the particular area of an acid cellulose membrane. One end of dried acidcellulose should be immersed into the sample. Even more, gold particles have the advantage of having high electron density near the junctions of gold-labeled protiens. Red spots became visible when these markers were aggregated at large numbers in the respective ligands. This principle is what makes rapid gold label detection possible. It is the ability to produce precise and fast reagents that depends on how sensitive and specific the materials are. It is also known as gold. This standard sets the standard for quality in standard reagents.
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