The properties, preparation and common applications of bismuth trioxide
Bismuth Trioxide Bi2O3 (bismuth trioxide Bi2O3) is an important functional metal. This material is found primarily in four crystal types: roof, net, and. There are many ways that different types of crystal can be used. Leume crystal is a yellow monoclinic, monoclinic crystal that has a relative densit of 8.9 and 825 at its melting point. It is insoluble in acids, but soluble in water and alkali. This type has a yellowish to orange hue, cube crystals, relative densitvity 8.55 and melting point 860. It can be soluble or insoluble in most acids, but not in water. You can easily reduce it to metal bismuth with hydrogen and hydrocarbon. A special material called -bi2o3 that has a cubic fluorite construction, where a quarter the oxygen ions of the lattice is empty, it exhibits high oxygen ions conductivity. Electronic ceramic powder, catalysts, photoelectric materials, ultraconducting materials and electrolyte materials are all areas that bismuth is used. It is an important ingredient in electronic ceramic material. Bismuth dioxide must have a purity greater than 99.15%. Main application objects include zinc oxide varistors as well ceramic capacitors and ferrit magnetic materials. The widely-used bismuth oxide can not only be used as an excellent organic synthesis catalyst, ceramic colourant, plastic flame retardant and medicinal astringent but is also a valuable doped material for the electronics industry.
The synthetic techniques
Mixed the bismuth solution solution (8090) with sodium hydroxide water solution, without carbon dioxide. The solution did not become alkaline during precipitation, which resulted in bi(OH)3 precipitation and white expanded bismuth oxide. Heat the solution and stir for a few seconds before dehydrating it into yellow bismuth oxide hydrate. Water decanting was used to dry the bismuth dioxide.
Drop 1.5mol/L sodium hydroxylide solution with carbon dioxide into 0.01mol/L bismuth-nitrate solution. Mix them in nitrogen atmosphere. The solution is still basic after precipitation. While a Bi(OH3)3-rich, white deposit formed. It was then dehydrated, and after being heated in hot water for a few minutes, turned into bismuth trioxide. After filtration, rinse it with cold water and let it dry for 15 minutes.
Once the bismuth had been melted into graphite, the arc between the graphite and liquid graphite was created. The oxygen was then circulated through the graphite and heated up for oxidation. In order to maintain a sufficient supply of oxygen, place the crucible in a large container. Reaction temperature was approximately 750800 degrees F and purity was at least 99.8%. These products can then be cooled with water or on cold sheets of metal.
Slowly, add 20g of Bi(NO3)3*5H2O acidic solutions to the excess sodium Carbonate solution. Stir vigorously. Bi2O3CO3 had been precipitated and filtered. It was washed, dried, and then washed. It should be placed in an aluminum vessel and heated at 650 K for approximately 1.5 hours to make tany-bi2o3.
5. For NO3-ion removal, heat the base bismuth nutrate to 400500 (for 3 4 hours).
2 biono3 = BIO3 + NO + NO2 + OO2
All of them will turn yellow when they cool after the process of burning.
6. The 16kg99.9% industrial bismuth substrate should be washed with some dilute acid nitrate. After that, rinse the area with conductive waters to get rid of the nitric. Next, mix the 1:1 high purity Nitric Acid (35 kg of nitrate with 20 of the relative densities of 1.42 L water conductivity), and allow the reaction to proceed for 10 minutes. To get to a relative density in 1.9, heat the filtrate to 65 70. After cooling, crystallizing, and drying, bismuth nutra was obtained. You can use the bismuth nutrat obtained conductance to dilute a solution. Then, you need to let it stand for alkali-type bismuth precipitation.
1. Material electronic functional
The electronic doping material bismuth oxide powder is commonly used for the manufacture of sensitive components, dielectric clays, and other electronic parts. The powder is highly dependable, has low production quantities, and has a wide surface. Alpha Bi2O3 is usually the most stable. Because it has a monocline crystal structure, there are many oxygen vacancies. Also, oxygen ion's conductivity makes it suitable for making solid oxide fuel cells or oxygen sensors. A common active substance used in chemical power supply includes bismuth dioxide, which is an excellent corrosion inhibitor for mercury free zinc batteries and electrode material to lithium batteries. Also, it can be used to enhance the rechargeability of alkaline Zn/MnO2 batteries. Bismuth oxide's rechargeability was more than conventional bismuthoxide powder. Additionally, as an additive to EMD (the active material of positive electrode of primary batteries), it demonstrated excellent results under deep discharge.
2. Combustion catalyst
It is an important component of the double-base solid propellant burner rate catalyst. Although it may increase the burn rate and decrease the pressure exponent, lead toxicity can be greater. Bismuth compound is an ecological low-toxicity, safer, faster burning catalyst. Studies have shown that the , nano Bi2O3 section at lower pressure has a higher propellant burning rate than the nano PbO and thus the role of the lower propellant index.
3. Materials are photocatalyzed to be degraded
According to some reports, Bi2O3 can be photocatalyzed in order to clean nitrite-containing waterways. Results show that Bi2O3 exhibits good photocatalytic activities. Because of their high specific surface area, large active areas, and high photocatalytic activities, nanomaterials possess better photocatalytic qualities.
4. It has been reported in the literature that the nanoparticles coated with bismuth oxide of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate have a large trivalent nonlinear optical coefficient, which is significant for the development of nonlinear optical devices even under weak light.
5. Urethane-heparin copolymer can be used as a medical material that has antithrombotic functions. It is also useful for creating interventional catheters. It is important to cover the catheter's thin walls with nano-bismuth ultrafine powder, which cannot be permeable to an X-ray.
6. Radiation-proof material.
Radiation protection products currently in use are largely made of lead. Lead is both harmful and dangerous for the environment as well as the body. Bismuth can be described as a "green metal" and has an attenuation coefficient that is higher than the one of lead. Combining the high radiation resistance of bismuth dioxide with the quantum effect from nanomaterials makes it an excellent choice for developing countries.
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