What is Vanadium?
What is Vanadium?
Vanadium is a silvery-gray metal. The melting point of 1890 belongs to the list of high melting point rare metals. Pure vanadium is hard, non-magnetic, ductile, but if it contains a small number of impurities, especially nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, etc., can significantly reduce its plasticity. Soluble in nitric acid, aqua regia and concentrated sulfuric acid, etc. Vanadium is a kind of metal element, element symbol for V, silver-gray metal, in the periodic table of the elements belonging to the VB group, atomic number 23, atomic weight 50.9414, body-centered cubic crystal, Vanadium melting point is very high, refractory metal, ductility, hard, non-magnetic.
Vanadium is a silver-gray metal. It has a melting point of 1890℃, which is one of the rare metals with a high melting point and a boiling point of 3380℃. Pure vanadium is hard, non-magnetic, and ductile, but its plasticity can be significantly reduced by small amounts of impurities, especially nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.
Vanadium is similar to tantalum and niobium. Roscoe, an English chemist, studied its properties and determined that it was similar to tantalum and niobium, setting the stage for the three of them to form a separate family in the periodic table. Vanadium is a moderately active metal with a valency of +2, +3, +4, and +5. Among them, +5 valence is the most stable, followed by +4 valence. Compounds with pentavalent vanadium have oxidation properties, while low-valent vanadium has reducibility. The lower the valence of vanadium, the stronger the reducibility. The ionization energy of 6.74eV, with hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid resistance, and in the resistance to gas, salt, water corrosion performance is better than most stainless steel. Vanadium is not oxidized in air and is soluble in hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, and aqua regia.
Adding a few percent of vanadium in steel can make the elasticity of steel, strength increases, anti-wear and anti-burst extremely good, both high temperature and anti-cold.In addition, vanadium oxide has become one of the best catalysts in the chemical industry, "chemical bread" said. Vanadium is mainly used in the manufacture of high-speed cutting steel and other alloy steels and catalysts. Vanadium steel can be made by mixing it with steel. Vanadium steel is more compact than ordinary steel structures, with higher toughness, elasticity, and mechanical strength. Armor-piercing rounds in vanadium steel, capable of penetrating steel plates 40 centimeters thick. However, in the iron and steel industry, vanadium steel is not made by adding pure metal vanadium to steel, but directly by smelting vanadium iron ore into vanadium steel.
Vanadium battery is one of the excellent green environmental protection batteries with strong development momentum. It has a special battery structure and can discharge with a high current density. Vanadium batteries have the advantages of rapid charging, low price, and wide application fields. Such as it can be used as building, airport, program control exchange station standby power supply. It can also be used as a supporting energy storage device for solar and other clean power generation systems.
Vanadium is a trace element in the human body. The content of vanadium in the human body is about 25mg. Because the biological effect is similar, the general vanadate refers to these two +5 oxidation ions.VO3- enters the cell via ion transport system or freely, and is reduced to VO2+ (+4 oxidation state) by reduced glutathione in the cell, i.e. Vanadyl. Since phosphoric acid and Mg2+ ions are widely present in cells, VO-3 is similar in structure to phosphoric acid, and VO2+ is similar in size to Mg2+ (ionic radius is 160pm and 165pm respectively). Therefore, VO2+ and phosphoric acid may compete with Mg2+ for a binding ligand to interfere with the cell biochemical reaction process.
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