Zinc sulfide deposited via chemical bath deposition


Zinc sulfide (ZnS) (3.7 eV band gap) deposited via chemical bath deposition (CBD) has been used previously as a buffer layer material in copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS)-based PVswith reported power conversion efficiency of 16.9%, equaling the performance of the CdS control that yielded a power conversion efficiency of 16.8%. Chemical bath deposited ZnS is indeed a viable alternative to Cd-based compounds for CIGS-based PVs; however, the CBD process, which involves chemically synthesizing the desired material(s) in a precursor solution and depositing onto a submerged substrate, would dissolve existing organic layers7 making this mechanism undesirable for conventional OPVs and less compatible with in-line vapor deposition of cadmium telluride (CdTe) PVs. While sputtered materials such as zinc oxide (ZnO) and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) exhibit wide electrical band gaps necessary to function as window layers, the sputtering process introduces interface defects and shorting that leads to poor OPV device performance. ZnS is a more versatile alternative to sputtered or CBD materials because it may be thermally deposited in a vacuum environment suitable for both OPV and CIGS-based PV applications, analogous to MoO3, which is widely employed as the anodic buffer layer in OPVs. While the wide band gap of ZnS makes this material a potential replacement for CdS as a cathode side window layer for both PVs and OPVs, we find that high electrical resistivity from thermally deposited ZnS limits device performance to efficiencies well below those of equivalent OPV devices utilizing BCP window layers. In previous work focused on structural and conductivity characterization of isolated ZnS films, aluminum, indium, and manganese were used as n-type dopants to improve the conductivity of ZnS. Al doping was previously reported to improve ZnS resistivity from 2.8 × 106 to 9.9 × 104 Ω cm at six at. % Al while increasing to 6.5 × 105 Ω cm at ten at. % due to Al atoms being unable to substitute to Zn sites at high concentrations and instead creating scattering sites rather than donating electrons. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective zinc sulfide, or if you require the latest price of zinc sulfide, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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