Advanced materials: Construction of artificial cells and tissues based on phospholipid assembly

cell is the basic unit of life. Using the bottom-up method we can build artificial cells that can simulate the properties functions of cells by using non living materials which can connect the non living materials with the life world provide the basis for the origin of life help people underst the biophysical properties operation mechanism of cells. Artificial cells also have great potential in intelligent response biomaterials personalized drug targeted delivery system cell replacement with impaired function screening of anticancer drugs so on. Although great progress has been made in this field there are still great challenges in the artificial construction of cells tissues with complex structures functions.

the research group of Professor Han Xiaojun School of chemical engineering chemistry Harbin University of technology based on their long-term work systematically discussed summarized the construction of phospholipid assembly its application in artificial cells tissues. Relevant reviews are published in advanced materials (DOI: 10.1002/adma.202002635). In this paper we first introduce the structure of phospholipid molecules the types of phospholipid assemblies their preparation methods. Phospholipid is an amphiphilic molecule composed of a hydrophilic head two hydrophobic tails which can be easily assembled into bilayer structure in aqueous solution. As an important component of biofilm phospholipid molecules can be assembled into different structures which provides a natural environment for the recombination of membrane proteins. Therefore it has natural advantages to construct artificial cells with phospholipid molecules. The phospholipid assembly consists of vesicles vesicular stacking structures tubular structures phospholipid disks conical structures. The method of assembly varies from class to class. Then the applications of these phospholipid assemblies in the field of artificial cells are introduced including the construction of functional membrane structure (the recombination of membrane proteins in giant phospholipid vesicles) the construction functional simulation of spherical non spherical artificial organelles the simulation of phase separated cytoplasm the simulation of intracellular material exchange protein anabolism the simulation of cell division the simulation of complex artificial groups Texture construction etc. In addition the application of phospholipid vesicles in biomedicine is also briefly described in this review. Finally the challenges future directions of phospholipid assembly in the field of artificial cells tissues were proposed.

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