Boron carbide is a black metallic shiny crystal, commonly known as black diamond. It is a powdered product made by adding boric acid as the main raw material, adding petroleum coke, and other carbonaceous materials, through high-temperature solid smelting and crushing. It is combined with diamond and cubic nitriding. Boron is also a superhard material.
Physical and chemical properties
Hard black shiny crystals. Hardness is lower than industrial diamond but higher than silicon carbide. Compared with most pottery, it is less fragile. Has a large thermal energy neutron capture cross-section. Strong chemical resistance. It is not corroded by hot hydrogen fluoride and nitric acid. It is soluble in molten alkali but insoluble in water and acid. The relative density (d204) is 2.508～2.512. The melting point is 2350°C. The boiling point is 3500°C.
It does not react with acid and alkali solutions and has high chemical potential, neutron absorption, wear resistance, and semiconductor conductivity. It is one of the most stable substances to acid, stable in all concentrated or dilutes acid or alkali aqueous solutions. Boron carbide is basically stable below 800°C in an air environment. The boron oxide formed by its oxidation at a higher temperature is lost in the gas phase, leading to its instability and oxidation to form carbon dioxide and boron trioxide.
When some transition metals and their carbides coexist, they have special stability. However, at higher reaction temperatures, literature reports indicate that boron carbide is easily nitridated or reacts with transition metal oxides to form corresponding boron nitrides and borides. The borides are rare earth and alkaline earth metal hexaborides. many.
When sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, and potassium carbonate are melted, boron carbide is easily decomposed, and the boron content is measured.
Its Mohs hardness is 9.3, and it is the third hardest known substance after diamond and boron nitride.
(1) The field of national defense. Boron carbide ceramics have been used in bulletproof since the 1960s. Compared with other materials, it has the characteristics of being easy to carry and high in hardness. It plays a huge role in the lightweight armor of armed helicopters and the bulletproof armor of aircraft. Britain used it as a raw material to make armor that can defend against armor-piercing projectiles.
(2) In terms of chemical raw materials. In order to increase the wear resistance and strength of alloy materials, boron carbide is used as a bronzing agent for alloys, which can be organized on the metal surface to generate a thin layer of iron boride; it can also be used as a boron source to generate boride powder by reduction and method Such as TiB2, ZrB2, CrB2, or "B4C method" to prepare boron halide, hydrogen boride, etc.
(3) Wear-resistant field. Various industrial nozzles such as desander nozzles for rust removal and nozzles used for cutting with high-pressure water guns have the shadow of boron carbide ceramics. Because of their long service life under extreme conditions and high-cost performance, they are often the first choice for factories. . It is also often used as a research body in the chemical analysis process because it can effectively avoid the pollution caused by the abrasive loss during the grinding process. As a substitute for diamond abrasives, boron carbide can significantly reduce costs in the processing of various hard metals and jade glass.
(4) Nuclear energy. Because of its excellent neutron absorption capacity, boron carbide is often used in neutron absorption material control rods, safety rods, and other components to control the rate of nuclear fission and protect the safety of the human body.
(5) Aviation. In the rocket power system-the rocket engine, boron carbide plays an important role as an important raw material for the shaft tip of the flow transmitter that transports liquid fuel; in the navigation system of the aircraft, the gyroscope is indispensable An important component, boron carbide as an additive material for the gyroscope can effectively increase its life.
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