Study on Preparation and Performance of C/C-TaC Composite
The carbon/carbon (C/C) composite material has the characteristics of light weight, high strength and good ablation performance, excellent thermal shock resistance, and performance designability. It has been developed into the fourth generation of throat lining materials and is widely used For solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle throat lining. However, with the development of SRM using high-energy propellant, higher requirements are put forward for the ablation performance of the material. In this paper, for the first time, the liquid phase precursor conversion method (PIP) and the method of adding TaC powder (PP) to the preform were used to prepare C/C-TaC composites, and the microstructure and thermophysics of C/C-TaC composites were systematically studied. , Mechanics and ablation performance. The main research contents and conclusions are as follows: (1) For the first time, Ta powder, HF acid, and furan resin are used as raw materials to synthesize a TaC precursor suitable for liquid phase impregnation. And according to the viscous flow characteristics of the precursors, the ratio of the precursors was optimized. The modified double Arrhenius equation was used to characterize the chemical rheological properties of the precursor with the optimized ratio. The curing behavior of the precursor was studied using DSC analysis technology, and the curing activation energy and curing reaction order were analyzed and calculated. , And optimized the dipping temperature and heating curing process. (2) The mechanism of precursor conversion to TaC during heat treatment was studied, and it was revealed that H_2TaF_7 in the precursor acts as a curing agent for furan resin. After curing, the Ta in the precursor mainly exists in the resin as TaO_2F crystals. With the increase of heat treatment temperature, TaO_2F is hydrolyzed or decomposed at high temperature to form Ta_2O_5. The heat treatment temperature further increases to 1200℃, and Ta_2O_5 is reduced with C to form TaC. (3) C/C-TaC composites with different TaC content were prepared by the precursor conversion method (PIP) and the method of adding TaC powder (PP) to the preform. The distribution and microstructure of TaC in the composite material, the degree of graphitization and thermal conductivity of the material are also studied and analyzed. The study found that: Compared with PP method, the particle size of TaC in C/C-TaC composites prepared by PIP method is finer and the distribution is more uniform. In the composite material prepared by the PP method, there is stress graphitization at the fiber edge surrounded by TaC. In the composite material prepared by the PIP method, the pyrolytic carbon at the interface between TaC and pyrolytic carbon has stress graphitization, and its graphitization degree is higher than C/C composite material under the same process conditions. When the volume content of TaC is less than 0.95%, the thermal conductivity of the C/C-TaC composite in the parallel direction is higher than that of the C/C composite. When the volume content of TaC is higher than 1.4%, the thermal conductivity of the parallel direction is lower than C/C. Composite materials. The thermal conductivity of the C/C-TaC composite in the vertical direction is lower than that of the C/C composite. (4) For C/C-TaC composites prepared by PIP and PP methods, the effects of different pyrolytic carbon content, different TaC content and heat treatment temperature on the mechanical properties of the material were investigated. The results show that the relationship between the mechanical properties of the C/C-TaC composites prepared by the two methods and the pyrolysis carbon content, TaC content and heat treatment temperature show similar changes, that is, the lower the pyrolysis carbon content, the higher the TaC content. The lower the value of the mechanical properties of the material. However, the mechanical properties of the C/C-TaC composite prepared by the PIP method are higher than those prepared by the PP method. The volume content of pyrolytic carbon is 47%, the volume content of TaC is 0.4%, and the C/C-TaC composite prepared by the PIP method The mechanical properties of the material are comparable to C/C composite materials. The reasons for the different mechanical properties are analyzed, and the fracture modes of the composite materials prepared by the two methods are discussed. The interlaminar shear fracture of C/C-TaC composites prepared by PP method is brittle fracture, but the interlaminar shear fracture mode of C/C-TaC composites prepared by PIP gradually changes from pseudoplastic to brittle fracture with the increase of TaC content. change. The vertical and parallel compression failure modes of C/C-TaC composites prepared by the two methods gradually transited from shear and shear + delamination to delamination mode with the increase of TaC content. (5) The oxyacetylene ablation properties of C/C-TaC composites prepared by PIP and PP methods are studied. The relationship between the oxyacetylene ablation performance of the C/C-TaC composites prepared by the two methods and the pyrolytic carbon content and TaC content shows similar laws, that is, the higher the pyrolytic carbon content, the smaller the TaC content, and the linear ablation rate of the material Higher, but the oxyacetylene ablation performance of C/C-TaC composite prepared by PIP method is better than that prepared by PP method. When the pyrolytic carbon content is 47% and the TaC content is 0.4%, the oxyacetylene ablation rate of the C/C-TaC composite prepared by the PIP method is 0.0083 mm/s, which is higher than that of the C/C composite prepared by the same process. The erosion rate is 20% lower. The ablation rate of this material after arc stagnation point ablation is 0.914 mm/s, which is about 35% lower than that of C/C composites. A proper amount of TaC (0.4% by volume) can improve the ablation resistance of composite materials by inhibiting oxidation and making up for ablation defects. (6) TaO_2F was used as a tantalum source to prepare a TaC coating for the first time. The ablation rate drops to 0.0056mm/s, which is 49% lower than that of C/C composites.
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