Types of Studies on Iron Oxide
Iron oxide is a chemical that has several properties and applications in various industries. It is also known as Fe2O3. Several types of studies have been performed on this compound, such as in vitro genotoxicity, inhalation, and XANES spectroscopy. The following article provides information about the different forms of this chemical.
There are three main phases of Fe2O3. The first is a-Fe2O3 which is present in nature. The other two are g-Fe2O3 and b-Fe2O3. These two phases have different physical properties and morphological characteristics.
Iron oxide is a dark red solid that has magnetic properties. The substance is formed through the oxidation of iron. A strong external magnetic field can attract iron to its surface. Moreover, high temperatures can break down iron to Fe2O3.
In vitro genotoxicity
The in vitro genotoxicity of iron oxides was examined by using dSPIONS, which differ in their Fe2+ and Fe3O4 content. Immune cells were transferred to lung epithelial cells and treated with dSPIONS. The in vitro genotoxicity of these compounds was compared to that of other compounds using equivalent monoculture treatments.
The NOAEL for red and black iron oxides was 1000 mg/kg b.w./day and these compounds showed genotoxicity in animal and human cell cultures. These nanoparticles are considered potentially hazardous because of their potential use in pulmonary drug delivery systems.
Inhalation of iron oxide has many potential health consequences. Exposure can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, a condition that causes scarring of the lungs. It may also contribute to kidney damage. While the long-term effects of iron oxide exposure are unclear, studies have shown that it can be dangerous.
Exposure to iron oxide is linked to a number of factors, including age, BMI, and smoking. It also causes oxidative stress and inflammation in the body. Exposure to iron oxide is associated with increased levels of a number of biomarkers, including 8-hydroxyguanosine, hydroxymethyl uracil, and nitrotyrosine.
XANES spectroscopy of ferrous oxides is a method used to identify iron compounds. This technique is commonly used to differentiate between magnetite and maghemite. It is also used to quantify the presence of different phases in iron oxide nanoparticles. The XANES spectra of maghemite and magnetite are shown in Figure 1. In magnetite, the white line shows a significant increase in intensity.
The XANES spectra of Fe3O4 clusters exhibit different structural arrangements compared to bulk Fe3O4. This difference is due to vacancies and the presence of Fe3+ ions. XANES spectra of these compounds have been calculated by Piquer and co-workers using a modified cell parameter. The intensity of the Fe3+ ions increases with the concentration of the Fe clusters.
FEEDAP panel recommendations
Iron oxides are used for colouring feedstuffs for animals. The FEEDAP panel has concluded that they pose no substantial risk to consumers, and they pass through the gastrointestinal tract of the target animals almost unchanged. Therefore, iron oxides in feedstuffs for animals are considered safe, as long as the concentrations are low enough to meet dietary requirements.
The FEEDAP panel has reviewed the maximum acceptable levels of iron for various animal species. It also cites the contribution of lysine in animal diets, which ranges from 645 to 1,720 mg Lys/kg of complete feed. However, lysine contribution may be as low as 0.45 % in pullets, so this level should be considered when formulating diets.
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