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Advanced functional materials: "solid solid" heterogeneous interface induces pseudo capacitance to realize high volume specific capacity sodium storage

is an effective way to realize the sustainable development of energy supply provide new power for social development technological change in the information age. Since the commercialization of lithium-ion batteries in the early 1990s electrochemical energy storage devices represented by lithium / sodium ion secondary batteries have greatly contributed to the storage utilization of clean electric energy. The key technical challenge of electrochemical energy storage devices is to further improve the energy density rate performance while extending the cycle life. The charge discharge process of lithium / sodium ion secondary battery is accompanied by the migration of ions in the electrode electrolyte. Among them the slow migration of ions in solid electrode materials often restricts the rate performance of the battery. In order to solve this problem researchers usually nanocrystallize the electrode materials or prepare porous structures to shorten the diffusion distance of ions in the solid. At the same time pseudo capacitive energy storage behavior will occur on the surface near surface area of the electrolyte contacting with the electrode to achieve efficient electrochemical energy storage process. However the electrode materials with nano porous structure often have large specific surface area which will bring serious interface side reaction low volume specific capacity.

in order to solve this seemingly contradictory problem researcher Wu Haobin of Zhejiang University designed synthesized a phosphorus titanium dioxide (p-tio2) composite anode material for sodium ion batteries: red phosphorus was filled in the titanium dioxide microspheres with connected mesoporous structure a three-dimensional heterogeneous interface of titanium phosphate was formed in-situ in the solid-solid contact area between red phosphorus titanium dioxide during the preparation process which can be used as anode material As a fast transport channel of sodium ion. It is found that the p-tio2 microporous microparticles exhibit a pseudo capacitive sodium storage behavior which is different from the pseudo capacitance caused by the solid-liquid interface of porous materials (such as mesoporous titanium dioxide) electrode electrolyte. The pseudo capacitive sodium storage is derived from the rapid sodium ion conduction ability of the three-dimensional heterogeneous interface of titanium phosphate. Based on this new mechanism of “solid solid” heterogeneous interface induced pseudo capacitive sodium storage p-tio2 porous micro particles can maintain high rate performance long cycle life while achieving high volume specific capacity high first coulomb efficiency. Compared with commercial hard carbon anode materials the volume specific capacity is increased by more than 50%. The research results will provide a new idea for the design of electrode materials with high rate high volume specific capacity.

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