A slower reaction rate, which leads to a small size and narrow distribution of the products, can be achieved using low reactant concentration. However, if the concentration of Cu salts were too low, the CuO product would become negligible. On the other hand, attention that was too high made the product agglomerate, so the concentration of precursor solution should be chosen carefully to balance between the quantity and quality, which refers to small size and good separation of the nanoproduct. The limitation of using a low-concentration solution could be an obstacle to the mass production of nano products due to solvent wastage. Still, recycling the used solvent could solve such a problem. After the nucleation and growth process are completed, the average size of CuO nanoparticles could continue to increase due to aggregation. This process reduces the quality of CuO nanoparticles and nanoproducts, so restraining the particles from self-aggregating is critical. As the nanoparticles were agglomerated, it was challenging to separate them. In nanostructure fabrication and processing, it is difficult to prepare small nanoparticles due to the challenge of enormous surface energy. Preventing the as-produced nano products from aggregating together is also a real problem that must be solved. There are two main stabilization mechanisms: electrostatic and steric stabilization. Electrostatic stabilization keeps the system at kinetic equilibrium, while steric stabilization keeps the system at a thermodynamically stable case. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective copper oxide, or if you require the latest price, please email contact mis-asia.