An Overview of the Applications of Tea Saponins
Tea saponins are natural antifungal agents. The purification of these compounds can be helpful in food safety. They can also act as bacteriostatic agents and inhibit the growth of mycelium. However, further studies are required to determine their safety. In the meantime, the following article provides an overview of the various applications of tea saponins.
Purification of tea saponins
Various techniques can carry out the extraction and purification of tea saponins. These methods can produce high-purity tea saponins. Some researchers believe that tea saponins can be used to treat soil that contains heavy metals and other organic pollutants. Others are hopeful that the compound can be applied to combat pollution in water.
Tea saponins can be separated by several methods, which include precipitation, centrifugation, and evaporation. Crude tea saponins are usually obtained through precipitation with agents such as alum or calcium oxide. Other methods include centrifugation, which involves the drying of tea saponin solutions at low temperatures.
Tea saponin is an antibacterial component with a bacteriostatic effect on bacteria. It is isolated from the defatted seeds of C. oleifera and evaluated against a range of antibiotic-resistant and erythromycin-resistant bacteria. Bacterial biofilm formation is a major cause of antibiotic resistance and recurrence. In this study, tea saponin inhibited biofilm formation by inhibiting MDH activity.
Acinetobacter spp. degrades tea saponin by altering the form of the compound and changing the host metabolism. Studies have found that Acinetobacter species from the gut of wood-fed termites can degrade phenolic compounds efficiently and use them as the sole carbon source. This study also shows the relative abundance of Acinetobacter in old C. oleifera plantations are significantly related to the accumulation and degradation of tea saponin.
Inhibition of growth of mycelium
Tea saponin (TP) inhibits the growth of the mycelium of the Fulvia fulva bacterium. It inhibits growth by causing structural changes. A dose of 250 mg/mL inhibited the growth of mycelia significantly. TP also inhibits the incidence of disease in the mycelium.
Tea saponin inhibits the growth of mycelia and fungi by altering cell membrane structures. It also inhibits cell adhesion, inhibiting cell aggregation and inhibiting biofilm formation. The saponin also reduced the expression of several hyphae and biofilm-related genes.
Effects on antioxidants
Tea saponins have been found to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. One study found that a dose of 5 mg/kg BW significantly increased antioxidant activity and lowered MDA and protein carbonyl levels. Further, tea saponins significantly increased immune responses to vaccines, suggesting that their antioxidant activity can help chickens cope with oxidative stress.
Tea saponins can be found in various plants, including those from the Mediterranean region. These plants have high oil content, and the saponins in their seed cakes have various pharmacological activities. Some saponins are used in the pharmaceutical industry, while others are used in food additives.