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What is Graphene How was graphene discovered

Graphene, a two-dimensional material composed primarily of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure, has been hailed as one of the most promising materials of the 21st century. Despite its extraordinary properties, it is still not well understood how this unique material was discovered.


What is Graphene How was graphene discovered

(What is Graphene How was graphene discovered)

Graphene was first synthesized in 2004 by exfoliation of graphite from bamboo flakes. This process involves heating and compressing graphite into thin flakes that can be separated and analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The flakes contain only a single layer of carbon atoms and exhibit remarkable electronic and mechanical properties.
The discovery of graphene was initially met with skepticism due to its low melting point and fragile nature. However, over the past decade, there have been several breakthroughs in understanding the structure and behavior of graphene. One key discovery was made in 2010 when researchers used XRD to confirm the presence of hexagonal pyramidal structures in the flake-based samples.
Another important development was the discovery of graphene oxide (GO), a covalent/graphene hybrid material that has a similar electrical conductivity to graphene but exhibits higher thermal stability and chemical reactivity. Researchers began exploring GO as a potential replacement for traditional graphene in electronic devices such as solar cells and transistors.
In 2012, a study published in the Physical Review Letters revealed that graphene could be grown on top of silicon substrates using a new type of vapor phase growth method called self-assembly. This method allowed for the production of large-scale graphene films with high quality and purity.
Despite these significant advancements, graphene remains a relatively unknown material and continues to be an active area of research. Many questions remain about its physical and chemical properties, as well as its potential applications in various fields such as electronics, energy storage, and medicine.


What is Graphene How was graphene discovered

(What is Graphene How was graphene discovered)

In conclusion, the discovery of graphene has opened up a wide range of possibilities for technological innovation and materials science. While much work remains to be done before graphene becomes widely available and integrated into our daily lives, its unique properties and potential benefits make it a fascinating and exciting area of research.
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