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What exactly is gallium nitride? What is the third-generation semiconductor material?

wallpapers News 2021-06-01
According to the news media, China is planning to support the development of the third generation of the semiconductor industry in the "difference" plan, plan within five years from 2021 to 2025, a national, application in education, scientific research, development, financing, and so on various aspects of broad support for the development of the third generation of semiconductor, in order to achieve independence, Stop being controlled by others.
Affected by the peripheral market and the international environment, the recent trend of A-shares is very weak, but there is A new concept that has been hotly hyped by the market, that is gallium nitride.
Hype is often blind, a lot of people actually do not know what kind of substance this is, first popularize gallium nitride (GaN).
May see from the chemical name, it is composed of nitrogen and gallium ions a semiconductor material, on the physical properties, the forbidden bandwidth is greater than 2.2 eV, also known as a wide bandgap semiconductor material, is the domestic often say a kind of the third generation of semiconductor materials, actually, market focus is not just a gallium nitride, but the third generation of semiconductor materials.
In fact, gallium nitride (GaN) technology is not a new semiconductor technology and has been commonly used in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) since 1990, but it is expensive. From the manufacturing process, no liquid gallium nitride, cannot use monocrystalline silicon production process of traditional draw Ferrari out the single crystal, need to be pure, was synthesized by gas and nitrogen gas properties is very stable, gallium is very rare metal (gallium is associated ore, no gallium concentration of ore formation, mainly derived from bauxite, the cost is high), and the reaction time is long, slow, The reaction produces more byproducts. The production of gallium nitride has strict equipment requirements, complex technology and very low production capacity, and many factors lead to the high cost of single crystal gallium nitride materials.
What is the third-generation semiconductor material?
The third generation of semiconductor materials, represented by gallium nitride (GaN), silicon carbide (SiC), zinc oxide (ZnO) and diamond, are the main materials in the 5G era, among which gallium nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC) have the largest market and development space. To see, in the military field, GaN can be used for radar, electronic countermeasures, missiles and wireless communication, silicon carbide (SiC) is mainly used in jet engines, tank engines, ship engines; In the civil and commercial field, gallium nitride (GaN) is used in base stations, satellite communications, cable TV, mobile phone chargers and other small home appliances, while silicon carbide (SiC) is mainly used in electric vehicles, consumer electronics, new energy, rail transit, etc.
The third generation refers to the iterative change of semiconductor materials, from the first generation, the second generation to the third generation. The first generation of semiconductor materials mainly refers to Si and Ge element-based semiconductors, which are the basic materials of semiconductor discrete devices, integrated circuits and solar cells. However, after the long-term development of silicon-based chips, they are gradually approaching the limit of materials, and the potential of improving the performance of silicon-based devices is also becoming smaller and smaller.
The third-generation semiconductor materials are represented by wide-bandgap substances such as gallium nitride (GaN), silicon carbide (SiC), zinc oxide (ZnO) and diamond. In fact, the main difference between the three-generation semiconductor materials is the bandgap width. The mainstream theory in modern physics to describe the conductive properties of materials is the energy band theory, which believes that the energy level of electrons in crystals can be divided into the conduction band and valence band. When the valence band is filled with electrons and the conduction band has no electrons, the crystal will not conduct electricity.
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