Iceland's National Energy Authority has created the world's first magma-based geothermal energy system after drilling 1.3 miles (2,100 meters) through the Earth's crust.
It is only the second time that a drilling operation has broken through to the mantle, the next layer after the Earth's crust, the group said. It is the world's first magma-based enhanced geothermal system (EGS).
The drilling operation was the work of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP), a consortium of the National Energy Authority of Iceland and the nation's leading energy companies.
The Iceland Deep Drilling Project was able to bore through the Earth's crust to its mantle and then line the hole with steel to create a shaft with superheated steam that could be fed into a nearby power plant.
The borehole is located in Krafla, in northeast Iceland, near a volcanic crater. The hole created a shaft with high-pressure, super-heated steam that could power a nearby electrical plant, the project leaders said.
"According to the measured output, the available power was sufficient to generate up to 36 megawatts electricity, compared to the installed electrical capacity of 60 megawatts in the Krafla power plant," IDDP stated in a document.
The team was able to bore the deep hole by pumping in cold water to break up the rock next to the magma in a process known as hydrofracking.
Once the IDDP reached molten magma of the Earth's mantle, it lined the bottom of the bore hole with a steel casing, creating a shaft of high-pressure steam that exceeded 842 degrees Fahrenheit (450 Celsius). The project broke a world record for geothermal heat and power.
The team said the steam from the IDDP-1 well, as it's called, could be fed directly into the power plant at Krafla.
Iceland's National Power Company was preparing to connect to the magma-powered steam pipe just before the hole had to be closed due to a valve failure.
IDDP, however, is planning to attempt a reopening of IDDP-1, as well as to drill a second borehole (IDDD-2) in Reykjanes, Iceland, in the coming years.
"In various parts of the world so-called EGS geothermal systems ... are being created by pumping cold water into hot dry rocks at 4 to 5 km depths. Then the heated water is taken up again as hot water or steam from nearby production wells. In recent decades, there has been considerable effort invested in Europe, Australia, USA, and Japan, with uneven results and typically poor results," the IDDP stated.
The Earth's layers
Scientists theorize that the Earth is made up of four layers: a crust, a mantle, a core and an inner core. The sub-ocean crust is three to five miles thick, and the continental crust is 20 to 30 miles thick. That crust only makes up about 1% of the Earth's mass.
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