What is Nickel oxide?
Nickel oxide is the main oxide of nickel. It is classified as an alkali metal oxide. Millions of kilograms of products with different qualities are produced every year, mainly as intermediates for nickel alloy production. The mineral form of NiO (arsenite) is rare. The protection of other nickel(III) oxides, such as Ni2O3 and NiO2 is also claimed but has not been proven by X-ray crystallography.
Nickel Oxide performance
Nickel oxide is formed by the action of nickel and oxygen at greater than 400℃, or by pyrolysis of nickel carbonate at 350℃. It is used for making alloys, batteries, glass, enamel, ceramics, electronic components, nickel salts, and as a catalyst.
Nickel Oxide preparation
Nickel Oxide can be prepared in a variety of ways. When heated above 400℃, nickel powder reacts with oxygen to form NiO. In some commercial processes, by heating a mixture of nickel powder and water at 1000℃ to obtain green nickel oxide, the reaction rate can be increased by adding NiO. The simplest and most successful preparation method is by cracking nickel (II) compounds such as hydroxide, nitrate, and carbonate to produce a light green powder. The metal is heated in oxygen and synthesized from the elements to produce a gray to black non-stoichiometric powder.
Nickel Oxide structure
Nickel Oxide adopts NaCl structure and has octahedral Ni2+ and O2− sites. Conceptually simple structures are often referred to as halite structures. Like many other binary metal oxides, NiO is usually non-stoichiometric, meaning that the Ni:O ratio deviates from 1:1. In nickel oxide, this non-stoichiometric NiO is accompanied by a color change, with stoichiometric NiO appearing green and non-stoichiometric NiO appearing black.
Nickel Oxide electronic structure
Nickel Oxide can be used to explain the invalidation of density functional theory (using functionals based on local density approximation) and Hartree-Fock theory. Strong correlation means that the behavior of electrons in solids cannot be well described (often not even in a qualitatively correct way) by simple one-electron theories such as the local density approximation (LDA) or Hartrey-Fock theory. For example, the deception-simple material NiO has a partially filled 3D band (a Ni atom has eight out of 10 possible 3D electrons) and thus promises to be a good conductor. However, the strong Coulomb repulsion between D - electrons makes NiO a wideband gap Mott insulator. Thus, the electronic structure of strongly correlated materials is neither a simple free-like electron nor a complete ion, but a mixture of the two.
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