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Our aim is to synthesize ATO nanoparticles

We aim to synthesize ATO nanoparticles, use them to fabricate non-catalyzed ATO electrodes with adequate electrical conductivity and high surface area, and apply them as cathodes in aprotic Li-O2 cells. In this study, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of ATO nanoparticles from chloride-free precursors using a modified procedure first reported by Zhang and Gao, followed by additional calcination and milling steps. Structural characterization is carried out by surface area measurement according to Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and static laser scattering (SLS). Excellent electrical conductivity is demonstrated. The use of ATO cathodes in Li-O2 batteries leads to unprecedented and potentially beneficial cell chemistry involving the formation of Li2O. This provides new mechanistic insights and implications for cathode design concepts that might enable the reversible cycling of Li-O2 cells. In the procedure adapted from Zhang and Gao, a mixture of metallic tin and Sb2O3 is first dissolved in nitric acid, which converts the metal cations to their highest oxidation states, Sn4+ and Sb5+. According to the Pourbaix diagrams for Sn and Sb, this process requires carefully adjusting the pH to a final value between −0.7 and 0.2. At positive potentials (i.e., under oxidizing conditions), Sb2O5 and SnO2 are precipitated in this pH range. A higher pH would lead to the sole precipitation of SnO2, whereas a lower pH would leave both cations in solution. Ideally, the pH is set so that during oxidation and dissolution of the precursors, it rises from an initial value below −0.7 to a value between −0.7 and 0.2 to allow a well-defined coprecipitation. Furthermore, tin is used in granulated form instead of powder to slow down the dissolution of tin in comparison to antimony oxide. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective ATO, or if you require the latest price of ATO, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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