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Precautions for the use of lithium nitride

What is lithium nitride?
It is a purple or red crystalline solid with a light green luster in reflected light and a ruby color in transmitted light. Long-term exposure to the air will eventually become lithium carbonate.
At room temperature, metal lithium can partially produce silicon nitride when exposed to air. Lithium produces silicon nitride in a nitrogen stream, which is 10-15 times faster than in air. At this time, all lithium is converted into Li3N. This property makes it difficult for other alkali metals to form nitrides. For example, sodium nitride can only be prepared by atomic beam deposition on sapphire at low temperatures, and it will decompose when heated slightly. Nitrogen leaking agent, reducing agent in organic reaction and nitrogen source in inorganic reaction.

Is Li3N ionic or covalent?
Lithium nitride, an unusual ion conductor. Lithium nitride shows the ionic conductivity of Li + with a value of c. 2×10-4Ω-1cm-1, and the (intracrystalline) activation energy is c. 0.26eV (about 24 kJ/mol).
Does hydrogen have properties similar to lithium?
Hydrogen itself is not an alkali metal, but because it has a simple arrangement of one proton (located in the nucleus) and one electron, it has some similar properties. For lithium, there are two 1 s electrons in the inner orbit and one 2 s electron in the outer orbit. Sodium and potassium have the same pattern.

Physical and chemical properties of lithium nitride

Physical properties
The melting point is 845°C, but it is insoluble in most organic solvents.

Chemical properties
1. It is stable in humid air because the surface is covered with a protective layer.
2.It reacts with water to generate lithium hydroxide and ammonia.
3.Li3N is a super base, which is stronger than negative hydrogen ions, so it can deprotonate hydrogen.
4. When lithium nitride is heated in hydrogen, lithium amide (LiNH2) and lithium imide (Li2NH) can be successively obtained, which are finally converted into lithium hydride and release ammonia.
5. Since the hydrogen absorption reaction of lithium nitride is reversible at 270°C, lithium nitride can be used as a hydrogen storage medium and can absorb up to 11.5% of its weight. Regardless of the direction of the above reaction, lithium amide (LiNH2) and lithium imide (Li2NH) are always intermediate products of the reaction.
6. Lithium nitride has strong reactivity, especially at high temperatures, it can corrode iron, nickel, copper, platinum, quartz and ceramics.

Precautions for use

Risk overview
Health hazards: irritating and corrosive ammonia gas is produced when exposed to water or moisture. It is corrosive and toxic to eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory system.
Fire and explosion hazard: The product is flammable, toxic, corrosive and can cause burns when wet.

Skin contact: Take off contaminated clothing immediately and rinse with plenty of running water for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention.
Eye contact: Lift the eyelid immediately, and rinse thoroughly with plenty of running water or saline for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention.
Inhalation: quickly leave the scene to a place with fresh air. Keep the airway unobstructed. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If breathing stops, give artificial respiration immediately. Seek medical attention.
Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water, drink milk or egg white. Seek medical attention.

Fire-fighting measures
Dangerous characteristics: strong reducibility. It reacts with water or water vapor to release toxic and flammable gas. It can react violently with acids. It can react with oxidants. Decomposition by high heat liberates toxic gases.
Hazardous combustion products: nitrogen oxides, lithium oxide.
Fire fighting method: firefighters must wear gas masks and full-body fire fighting clothes, and put out the fire in the upwind direction.
Extinguishing agent: dry powder, carbon dioxide, sandy soil. It is forbidden to extinguish fire with water and foam.

Personal protection
Engineering control: airtight operation, local exhaust.
Respiratory system protection: When the dust concentration in the air exceeds the standard, you must wear a self-priming filter dust mask. During emergency rescue or evacuation, air respirators should be worn.
Eye protection: wear chemical safety glasses.
Body protection: wear rubber anti-corrosion overalls.
Hand protection: wear rubber gloves.
Other protection: Smoking, eating and drinking are prohibited in the workplace, and hands should be washed before meals. After work, take a shower. Maintain good hygiene.

Fast ion lithium nitride is grown according to the "graphene" mode
The study found that in the absence of an equivalent van der Waals gap, both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanostructures of lithium nitride can be grown. Compared with bulk compounds, lithium ion diffusion is enhanced, resulting in materials with special ion mobility.
Li3N demonstrates the concept of assembling ionic inorganic nanostructures from monomolecular layers without the need for van der Waals gaps. Computational studies have revealed an electronic structure mediated by the number of Li-N layers, transitioning from bulky narrow band gap semiconductors to metals on the nanoscale.

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