Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDs) have attracted much attention in optoelectronics due to their tunable bandgaps, strong interaction with light, and tremendous capability for developing diverse van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) with other materials. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) atomic layers exhibit high carrier mobility and optical transparency and are very suitable for developing ultra-broadband photodetectors for surveillance and healthcare to optical communication. This review briefly introduces TMD-based photodetectors, exclusively focused on MoS2-based photodetectors. The current research advances show that the photoresponse of atomic layered MoS2 can be significantly improved by boosting its charge carrier mobility and incident light absorption via forming MoS2-based plasmonic nanostructures, halide perovskites–MoS2 heterostructures, 2D–0D MoS2/quantum dots (QDs) and 2D–2D MoS2 hybrid vdWHs, chemical doping, and surface functionalization of MoS2 atomic layers. By utilizing these different integration strategies, MoS2 hybrid heterostructure-based photodetectors exhibited remarkably high photoresponsivity raging from mA W−1 up to 1010 A W−1, detectivity from 107 to 1015 Jones and a photoresponse time from seconds (s) to nanoseconds (10−9 s), varying by several orders of magnitude from deep-ultraviolet (DUV) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) region. The flexible photodetectors developed from MoS2-based hybrid heterostructures with graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), TMDs, and ZnO are also discussed. In addition, strain-induced and self-powered MoS2-based photodetectors have also been summarized. The factors affecting the merit of a very wide range of MoS2-based photodetectors have been analyzed in terms of their photoresponsivity, detectivity, response speed, and quantum efficiency, along with their measurement wavelengths and incident laser power densities. Conclusions and the future direction are also outlined on the development of MoS2 and other 2D TMD-based photodetectors. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective Molybdenum disulfide, or if you require the latest price of Molybdenum disulfide, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.