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Iron accumulation and GSH dopamine and neuromelanin in Sn

GSH is the most abundant antioxidant in all compartments of the cell. Nu'n˜ez et al. proposed that there is a positive feedback loop between iron accumulation, low GSH, and oxidative stress. Iron accumulation causes to decrease in the level of GSH and induction of oxidative stress. Furthermore, the low level of GSH increases the level of TfR, which enters iron into the cell and aids iron accumulation. Chemicals that inhibit complex1 in mitochondria, such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or inflammatory factors, activate this loop. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter secreted by dopaminergic neurons in Sn. Recently, Hare et al. reviewed the iron-dopamine couple and proposed that the interaction of iron and dopamine can generate neurotoxic byproducts, including 6-hydroxydopamine quinone (6-OHDA-Q), 6-OHDA, tetrahydroisoquinoline, and H2O2. These products activate a loop between iron accumulation, low GSH, and oxidative stress. Therefore, dopamine int In dopaminergic cells, ferritin level is lower than other regions throughout the brain, neuromelanin pigment—a dopamine product-stores free iron ions. Iron first connects to high affinity-iron binding sites and reduces iron toxicity. However, after the occupation of these sites, iron attaches to high affinity-iron binding sites and is stored in the Fe2+ state. Then, when the iron is higher than the threshold, neuromelanin helps to keep redox-active iron in the cell; and neuromelanin, itself, is considered a destructive factor. Densifies toxicity of iron accumulation and makes a more toxic situation for neurons in the Sn. Given the above content, we propose that when iron accumulation occurs, low GSH, dopamine, and neuromelanin in the Sn help to accumulate iron and contribute to more generation of oxidative stress. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective Iron oxide, or if you require the latest price, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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