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Iron oxide nanoparticles may damage to the neural tissue through oxidative stress

In recent years, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been under special interest due to their ability to target a certain site within the body under an external magnetic field. Also, IONPs can surpass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, they have been proposed for a variety of applications in the central nervous system (CNS), including targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) in the arteries, inhibiting the microglial cells, delivering a drug, and increasing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). IONPs comprise two components: a nucleus of iron oxide and a hydrophilic coating sheet such as dextran or polyethylene glycol. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3)—two compounds of iron oxide—are frequently used in biomedical applications. The physical properties of both compounds are very similar; Fe2+ ions in the magnetite have a higher ionic radius than Fe3+ ions in the maghemite. The hydrodynamic radius and surface charge of nanoparticle (NP) determine the protection period of NP in circulation, the accessibility of tissues, opsonization, and its absorption by the cell. Upon cell absorption, IONPs, are located in the acidic medium of lysosomes, where IONPs are metabolized and produce free iron ions in the cells. In addition, the direction of IONPs using an external magnetic field toward a specific tissue lead to iron accumulation in the targeted tissue. Given the widespread use of IONPs on one side and the toxicity of iron in neurodegenerative disorders on the other side, this study has reviewed recent studies to determine whether IONPs and iron can influence cellular activities and metabolism. We carried out data mining through deep manual research in PubMed using a combination of several keywords, including the toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles, iron accumulation, and neurodegenerative diseases. In our data mining, most of the included research and review articles were published in PubMed after 2002. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective Iron oxide, or if you require the latest price, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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