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Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy – Classification and Application |


A type of functional material known as shape memory alloy has excellent strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. It is also non-toxic. There are promising medical applications. It can only be deformed by Nitinol in its low temperature phase and then restored to the original shape by adding 20-300 degrees Celsius. It can expand at more than 20%, has an average fatigue life of up to 107 years, and its damping characteristics is better than most.

Nitinol Wire classification

1. 1940: Gold bow wire, cobalt chromium alloy and stainless steel roundwire.

2. Martensite stabilized alloys were first created in 1960. These alloys consisted mainly of nickel-titanium and had been formed by deformation within the martensite state. This arch wire is flexible and produces a lighter correction force.

3. 1980. The Chinese nickel titanium and Japanese nickel titanium allotment arch wires had austenite activation alloys. This meant that they could show austenite in any state and did not exhibit temperature-induced Martensite when used outside and inside the mouth.

4. Martensite activated nickel–titanium alloy was discovered in 1990. It has a TTR lower than or very near to the oral cavities temperature.

5. Gradedthermodynamic (Higher thermodynamic nickel-titanium alloy): When the TTR temperature rises above the oral temperature, around 40degC the archwire of nickel-titanium is in a multicomponent state. This is why the archwire feels relatively soft when placed in the cavity.

Nitinol can be used in clinical applications

1. It’s used to align and level the patient’s dentition early. Nitinol’s shape memory and superelasticity of Nitinol Arch wires make them a common part of the clinical treatment.

2. Nitinol extensions springs, push springs and Nitinol pull springs are orthodontic springs. These super elastic springs can be used to treat orthodontic problems such as opening up gaps between teeth or pulling teeth in different ways.

3. Dr. Soma in Japan has developed the LH-arch wire. LH stands for Low Hysteresis. It is the name of the arch wire that’s ligated to the bracket. Very little is the difference between stress created when an arch wire returns slowly to its original shape after it is moved.

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