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Structural characterization techniques of ATO

Surface area measurements are performed on a gas sorption analyzer (Autosorb-iQ, Quantachrome, USA) at 77 K using nitrogen as an adsorbent. Samples are pretreated under a vacuum at 140°C for 15 h (as-synthesized ATO) or 350°C for three h (calcined ATO). Adsorption isotherms are recorded in the relative pressure range of 0.05 (p/p0) 0.30 and used to calculate BET surface areas. X-Ray Powder Diffraction data are collected using a diffractometer (Stadi MP, STOE, Germany) equipped with a one-dimensional silicon strip detector (Mythen 1K, Dectris, Switzerland) and monochromatized Mo (Kα1) radiation (λ = 0.7093 Å, 50 kV, 40 mA) in Debye-Scherrer geometry using a 0.7 mm diameter glass capillary as sample holder. Data is collected between 2° and 58° (2θ) with a resolution of 0.015°; the overall data-collection time is set to 30 min. Agglomerate size determination via static laser scattering (SLS) is conducted on a particle size distribution analyzer (LA-950V2, Retsch, Germany). 10 mg material is dispersed in 10 ml isopropanol by ultrasonication. A variable amount of this dispersion is added to a stirred ethanol stock solution in the instrument's sample cuvette, thus adjusting the degree of absorption of the instrument's laser beams by the dispersion. Refractive indexes of Indium-doped tin oxide in ethanol (n(650 nm) = 1.8, n(405 nm) = 2.1) are used for particle size calculations. SEM images are recorded on a scanning electron microscope (NEOSCOPE JCM-6000, JEOL, Japan). The particles are distributed homogeneously for sample preparation on a conductive carbon tape from the isopropanol dispersions initially used in the SLS experiments (see above). If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective ATO, or if you require the latest price of ATO, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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