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The toxicity of CuO NPs

NPs exhibit different toxicological effects compared with larger particles of the same chemical composition. The key factors influencing CuO NPs' toxicity are size, shape, surface modification, morphology, and concentration. The systemic distribution of particles depends on the ability to diffuse through tissues or cells, which is partly determined by the surface charge of the particles. Once inside the cells, NPs may interact with organelles and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which disrupt normal cellular functions. ROS induces oxidative stress, causes lipid peroxidation, and damages cells' defense mechanisms by depletion of reduced glutathione (tripeptide γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH). In addition, ROS increases superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in cells. n vitro studies on exposure of human cells to CuO NPs have shown high cytotoxicity and the ability to cause DNA damage, induction of oxidative stress, and cell death. Compared with TiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and CuZnFe2O4 NPs, copper oxide NPs are the most potent regarding cytotoxicity and DNA damage. CuO NPs have also been found to be much more toxic than Cu ions. NPs may serve as "Trojan-horse type carriers," enabling the transport of metal ions into the cells. While cell membranes are good barriers for most ions, toxic Cu ions can be released inside cells as the small size of CuO NPs allows them to enter the cell. If you are looking for high quality, high purity, and cost-effective copper oxide, or if you require the latest price of copper oxide, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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