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Things You Need to Know About Black Phosphorus Composite and Applications

Black Phosphorus


Composite is made of graphite and Black phosphorus. Black phosphorus, or BP, is a promising anode material due to its high conductivity (both electronic and ionic) and theoretical capacity. It is important to understand the redox reactions that occur between BP ions and the alkali ions in order to determine the limitations and potential of BP.

Scientists from the University of Science and Technology of China’s team of Professor Ji Hengxing published a research result in “Science”, the world’s leading scientific magazine. They made a major research breakthrough on the development of new lithium ion electrode materials.

Ji Hengxing stated that “if we use this technology, we may be able fully charge an electrical car in around 10 minutes and travel about 500 kilometers.” The charging time of electric cars has always been a major problem. Electric vehicles are currently “waiting” an hour before they can drive 500 kilometers. The electric vehicle industry has always aimed to develop large-capacity, lithium-ion battery packs with fast charging capability.

The material of the electrode is an important factor when determining battery performance. “If you are looking to increase battery charging speed, then you need material that is fast in electrochemical reactions. It is important to check if the electrode material can conduct electrons andions. Ji Hingxing, a member of the research group, said that they hope to discover an electrode material capable of meeting the industry’s expectations for comprehensive performance indicators and also able to adapt to industrial battery production processes.

Dr. Hongchang Jin introduced the thesis by saying: “Energy flows into and out of the battery via the chemical reactions between lithium ions, and electrode materials. Determining the charging rate is based on the conductivity between the electrode materials and lithium ions. It is important to consider the amount.”

The Jixingxing research team discovered that black phosphorus was a good choice. First, it has a very high theoretical capacity, only second to single crystal lithium or metallic silicon. Second, because it is a semi-conductor, its ability to conduct electronic currents is strong. Third, the black sheet phosphorus structure is layered, and the lithium ions can easily be conducted between the layers. This excellent property makes black phosphorus an electrode material which can be used to fast charge lithium-ion batteries.

Black phosphorus (an allotrope) is a form of white phosphorus. It is a promising electrode material for fast charging. However, current studies found that there was a gap between black phosphorus’s comprehensive performance indicators and the expectations. The edge of the layered black phosphorus structure is susceptible to structural damage, and measured performance is lower than expected. Ji Xingxing adopted the “interface-engineering” strategy to connect graphite and black phosphorus through phosphorus carbon covalent bonds. This made the structure more stable and allowed lithium ions into the black phosphorus to be easier.

It is possible to wrap the electrode material in chemicals, which will decompose it over time. The substances used will block lithium ions from reaching the electrode material. This is similar to how dust on glass surfaces blocks light. To achieve this, the team of researchers applied clothing to the composite material. They made a dustproof coat using a thin layer of polymer gel and “wore” this on the surface the black graphite composite material. This allowed lithium ions to easily enter.

“Under the optimization of interfaces between these two levels, black phosphorous has reached a breakthrough performance.” Ji Hingxing told the media.

“We use traditional process routes and parameters to convert the black-phosphorous composite material into electrode sheets.” Laboratory measurements show that electrode sheets can recover up to 80% after just 9 minutes and still retain 90% of their capacity after 2000 charging cycles. Xin, co-first writer of the paper, and a researcher from the Institute of Chemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences said that if mass production of the material is possible, matching cathode metals and other auxiliary substances can be found, an optimized design should achieve an energy density of 350 Wh. It has a lithium ion battery that can be charged quickly and is capable of delivering 350 Wh/Kg. The battery will enable electric vehicles with a range of up to 1,000 kilometers and increase their user experience.

Jixingxing will continue its exploration in the areas of basic research, scale preparation technology and other related fields. For battery technology to advance and for electric vehicles and consumer electronics to develop, an in-depth knowledge of scientific fundamentals is needed. This includes understanding the physical and chemical properties and electrochemical reactions of electrode materials as well as industry performance requirements. “To achieve this goal, we still have a great deal of work ahead of us, but our future is full of hope.” Ji Hengxing spoke.

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