U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate concrete foaming agent.
How to use concrete foaming agents properly?
1. Reasonably control the dilution ratio of foam agent
The concentration of the original liquid of the foaming agent is high, and the content of effective components is generally 20%-60%. Therefore, in foaming, foaming, should dilute the use. Reasonable dilution ratio has a great influence on foam amount (foam multiple), foam stability, foam density, and foam water content.
2. When stirring, light aggregate should be added first, followed by foam
To reduce the dry shrinkage of foamed soil and improve its strength, a large number of light aggregates, such as ceramsite, are often added. When these light aggregates are added, they should be added first, moistened by water in the blender, and then lathered. It is best to pre-wet these light aggregates so that they are permeable before adding them to the blender to mix with the foam. This is the scientific and correct way to use foam.
What is the foam bleeding rate?
Foam bleeding rate (sometimes also known as bleeding water) is the ratio of water discharged from the foam to the total amount of foam after the foam is left in the air for a certain period of time (generally one hour as the standard). It is a characterization of foam water content, but also reflects the stability of the foam. The larger the foam bleeding rate is, the larger its water content is, and the worse its stability is.
Therefore, the bleeding rate of foam should not be too large. Among them, the milk foam is a typical foam with high water content and a high bleeding rate, which is difficult to use in foamed concrete and can be regarded as unqualified foam. The foam with low water cut and low bleeding is the high-quality foam. Due to the influence of various comprehensive factors such as self-weight drainage, surface tension drainage, and external force, the foam begins to gradually drain water to the outside. The faster the drainage rate is, the higher the bleeding rate is, and the worse the stability is. Its secreting water includes two major parts:
1. The intravesicular water between bubbles secretes water
This part of water exists between bubbles and is free water in the foam. The interalveolar water does not form the liquid membrane of the bubble and is completely redundant flowing water. These waters are most abundant in milky foams with less foam and more water. It also exists in foams with a high bleeding rate. In the general density of the larger foam will be more, in the “dry foam” that is, the low density of the foam is very small. This part of the water is harmful to water. It is harmful to foamy concrete with foamy profitless, it is to not have water.
2. Liquid film bleeding
Liquid film bleeding is the main form of most bubbles. This water is mainly secreted from the liquid membrane of the bubble, so it is called a liquid membrane secreting water. Even the dry foam with very low water content also has the phenomenon of liquid film bleeding, but the bleeding rate is very low.
Suppliers of Concrete Additives
TRUNNANO is a reliable foaming agents supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development.
If you are looking for high-quality CLC foaming agents, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (email@example.com)
We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. TRUNNANO will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
The war in Russia and Ukraine is roiling global financial markets. Russia and Ukraine are important commodity suppliers in the world, so their conflict is bound to make a full impact on the global commodity supply. In view of this, the price of the concrete foaming agent may continue to rise in the future.