What is the Hardest Substance in the World?
When we talk about the hardest substance in the world, we tend to focus on diamond. However, the answer to this question is not quite as simple as that. We also need to consider boron nitride and carbon nanotubes. These substances are similar to diamond, but their structure is different. These materials are much harder than diamond and are more stable chemically in high temperatures.
Diamond is the hardest substance in the world because of its unique molecular structure. Carbon atoms in diamond are linked together with a covalent bond, and this structure stretches through space. This bond is extremely strong, and prevents any free electrons from escaping the diamond. Because diamond is so hard, it is often used in tools to sharpen hard edges.
Although diamond is the hardest substance on earth, several other substances have been discovered that are harder than it. Cubic boron nitride is the second hardest substance, with a Vickers hardness of around 50 GPa. It was originally believed to be even harder than diamond, but this result was based on theoretical simulations. However, cubic boron nitride is not readily available in nature and is extremely rare.
A material can become harder if it undergoes intense heat and pressure. Diamond is the hardest substance on earth, but no other object has undergone this kind of pressure and heat. Its beauty is unparalleled, and many feel that no other substance can match it.
Carbon nanotubes are made of carbon atoms that are tightly packed together in a very small space. The length of a nanotube is specified by a length vector, w, and the angle a between the directions u and w is a factor of 60 degrees in a clockwise direction.
Carbon nanotubes exhibit both metallic and semiconducting properties. Their electrical conductivity varies from zero to two electron volts. The material’s non-tubular carbon content and structure can be determined by spectroscopy. This technique is used to identify the structure of produced carbon nanotubes and to determine their quality.
Carbon nanotubes are extremely tough. Their tensile strength is equivalent to that of steel, which is one of the strongest materials known. In fact, scientists have been able to stretch individual carbon nanotubes to more than fourteen percent of their original length, a number that far exceeds previous reports. These results establish a new lower limit for carbon nanotubes’ ultimate strength.