What Do Nanoparticles Do to the Body?
Nanoparticles are small molecules that have different properties. Some of them clump together to create self-assembling fibrils. These fibrils are linked to various medical conditions. These include amyloid fibrils, which produce plaques in cells. Others, like purified beta-2 macroglobulin, form protein fibrils.
Inorganic nanoparticles are absorbed by the intestinal cells
Inorganic nanoparticles can be absorbed by intestinal cells via various routes. The two most relevant are paracellular and transcellular transport. The former is limited by tight junctions. However, small molecules can cross these. The pore-size of such particles is between 0.6 and 5 nm. Other mechanisms of absorption include the biliary clearance, which can add particles to the intestinal tract.
The size of the particle also has an effect on its absorption. Smaller particles are more likely to be absorbed by the intestinal cells because they have a negative surface charge. However, larger particles are more likely to accumulate in secondary organs, such as the liver, kidney, or pancreas. In addition, nanoparticles can affect the motility of the gastrointestinal tract.
Inorganic nanoparticles can cause a wide range of health effects. They may damage DNA and induce oxidative stress. They may also trigger inflammation. Furthermore, they may damage the cells’ absorptive surfaces. Further, they can lead to a number of diseases, including cancer.
Silver nanoparticles can deliver drugs directly to specific cells
Silver nanoparticles can deliver drugs directly into specific cells in the body, which can prevent disease and improve the effectiveness of antibiotics. The silver nanoparticles vary in size from 20 to 120 nm. Studies have shown that these particles are effective in reducing bacterial counts and killing 99.9% of E. coli bacteria. However, it is important to note that some strains of E. coli can develop resistance to silver nanoparticles. However, this resistance is not genetically based, but a physical response to the colloidal nanoparticles.
These nanoparticles may also help treat cancer by delivering drugs directly to specific cancer cells. The polyvinyl pyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles have been found to induce a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This is an exciting development that could lead to a breakthrough in cancer treatment.
Carbon nanotubes can induce mesothelioma
The researchers studied the potential role of carbon nanotubes in causing mesothelioma by placing long carbon nanotubes inside the pleura of mice, where the disease is typically found. They found that the nanotubes induced a variety of changes in the pleura. One of the most striking effects was the activation of pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, which are responsible for tumor development. Another effect was the inhibition of certain genes, which control cancer growth. Interestingly, the mice developed some characteristics of mesothelioma that were identical to those observed in human tumors.
Recent studies suggest that carbon nanotubes may be a significant contributor to the development of lung cancer. Multiwall carbon nanotubes have been found to induce lung adenomas and carcinomas in rats. However, the mechanisms of these effects are still unclear, as research models have been limited. The presence of asbestos in the lungs has been linked to the development of lung cancer in humans, but scientists are not sure how asbestos fibers might interact with carbon nanotubes.