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On the MnO2 structure type

Generally, the voltage depends on the manganese oxidation state and the MnO2 structure type (1–5 V). Using host structures such as carbon, lithium alloys, and metal oxides instead of metallic lithium as the negative electrode improved battery safety, especially for rechargeable cells. Several rechargeable lithium battery systems with manganese oxide positive electrodes were commercialized in the past: C/LiMn2O4 (3.5 V), LiAl/MnO2 (2.5-V, coin cell), and LiTiO2/LiMn2O4 (1.5-V coin cell). Layered lithium–manganese oxides and lithium–nickel–manganese oxides are desirable alternatives to the LiCoO2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries. The versatile use of electronic consumer products (i.e., cellular phones, video cameras, and laptops) and the need for lightweight batteries with high energy and power density have promoted the development of lithium-ion batteries for nearly two decades. Much effort has been focused on manganese-based materials as cathodes in lithium batteries due to low cost and safety. Lithium–manganese dioxide cells offer a significantly higher voltage than their Zn–MnO2 analogs. Manganese dioxide is a mild and selective oxidant used for this purpose, although reaction conditions may critical to prevent over-oxidation. For example, short exposure of pyridoxal to activated manganese dioxide under the acidic conditions affords pyridoxal in good yield, while 4-pyridoxic acid is formed under primary conditions. The diol was selectively oxidized to the lactol with activated manganese dioxide to prepare ellipticine analogs. The allylic alcohol in the diol was oxidized with barium manganate to afford the lactol. In contrast, treatment with a ruthenium(VI) complex resulted in the oxidation of the other primary alcohol to give the alternative lactol. If you are looking for high quality, high purity and cost-effective manganese dioxide, or if you require the latest price of manganese dioxide, please feel free to email contact mis-asia.

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