Thrust bearings are generally composed of two thrust washers or more thrust washers and several rolling elements. Typically, thrust washers are divided into shaft pieces and seat pieces. The most common type of rolling element is made of iron or copper. The quality cage is combined into a whole. This type of bearing is most commonly a steel ball thrust bearing.
In 2011, there were 1416 enterprises on the scale of China's bearing manufacturing industry (annual sales revenue of more than 20 million yuan). The annual industrial output value was 193.211 billion yuan, an increase of 27.59% year-on-year; sales revenue was 191.907 billion yuan, an increase of 30.30% year-on-year; profit The total amount is 12.523 billion yuan, an increase of 26.54% over the previous year. It is estimated that by 2015, China's bearing output is expected to exceed 28 billion sets. Its primary business income is expected to reach 210 billion yuan, becoming the world's most massive bearing production and sales base. China's bearing industry mainly faces three major problems: low production concentration, little R & D and innovation capabilities, and small manufacturing technology. First, the industry's production concentration is low. In the world's bearing sales of about 30 billion US dollars, the world's eight major multinational companies account for 75% to 80%. Germany's two largest companies account for 90% of its national total, five in Japan account for 90% of its domestic total, and one in the United States accounts for 56% of its nationwide total. The ten largest bearing companies in China, such as tile shafts, accounted for only 24.7% of the industry's sales, and the top 30 production concentration was only 37.4%. Second, low R & D and innovation capabilities. The fundamental theoretical research of the whole industry is weak, and the participation in the formulation of international standards is uncertain, with less original technology and less patented products.
The thrust ball bearing is a separate bearing. The shaft ring and seat ring can be separated from the cage and steel ball components. The shaft ring is the ring matched with the shaft, the seal ring is the ring paired with the bearing seat hole, and there is a gap between the cylinder. The thrust ball bearing can only bear axial load, and the unidirectional thrust ball bearing can alone bear Axial load in one direction, two-way thrust ball bearings can withstand axial loads in two directions. Thrust ball bearings cannot limit the radial displacement of the shaft, and the limit speed is deficient. One-way thrust ball bearings can define one of the beams, and the Axial housing displacement in the direction and bidirectional bearings can limit the axial movement in both directions.
In terms of its function, it should be a support, which is used to support the shaft, but this is only a part of its service. The essence of support is to be able to bear radial loads. It can also be understood that it is used to fix the shaft. Carrying quick and easy automatic selection is included. It is to adjust the beam so that it can only rotate and control its axial and radial movement. The motor can't work at all without bearings. Because the shaft may move in any direction, and the engine requires the shaft to rotate only when it is working. In theory, it is impossible to achieve the role of transmission. Not only that, but just bearings also affect communication. To reduce this effect, excellent lubrication must be performed on the bearings of high-speed shafts. Some bearings are already lubricated, called pre-lubricated bearings. Most bearings must have lubricating oil, which is responsible for not only increase energy consumption due to friction during high-speed operation, but more terrible is that it is easy to damage the bearing. The conversion of sliding friction into rolling resistance is one-sided because there is something called a sliding bearing.
The purpose of lubricating rolling bearings is to reduce internal friction and wear of bearings, prevent burning and sticking; extend their service life; discharge frictional heat and cooling, avoid overheating of bearings, prevent aging of lubricating oils themselves; also prevent foreign objects from intruding into bearings, or prevent rust and corrosion Of effect.
Bearing lubrication methods are divided into grease lubrication and oil lubrication. To make the bearing function well, it is necessary to choose a lubrication method suitable for the conditions of use and purpose of use. If only lubrication is considered, the lubricity of oil lubrication is dominant. However, grease lubrication simplifies the structure around the bearing and compares the advantages and disadvantages of grease lubrication and oil lubrication. Pay special attention to the amount when lubricating. Whether it is oil lubrication or grease lubrication, too little lubrication will not sufficiently affect the bearing life.
Bearing seals can be divided into two types: self-contained seals and external seals. The so-called bearing self-sealing means that the bearing itself is made into a device with sealing performance. For example, bearings with hats and sealing rings. Such a seal takes up little space, is easy to install and disassemble, and has a relatively low cost. The so-called bearing with sealing performance device is a sealing device with various performances manufactured inside the mounting end cover and the like. Bearing plus seal is divided into non-contact seal and contact seal. Among them, non-contact sealing is suitable for high-speed and high-temperature occasions and has different structural forms such as gap type, labyrinth type, and gasket type. The contact seal is ideal for medium and low-speed working conditions. Commonly used felt seals, leather cup seals, and other structural forms.
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