Nitrides formed from alkali metals or alkaline Earth metals belong to the ionic group. They are crystals with ionic bonding, and nitrogen is in the form N3+, which is also called salt-like nitrides. Li3N, the only ionic nitride currently used, is a deep red solid. Li3N belongs to a hexagonal crystal system and is a red solid with a density of 1.27g/cm3 at a melting temp of 813degC. It is very easy to synthesize, and it has a good ionic conductivity. It can be combined either with solids or liquids. Coexistence of Lithium is one of best solid lithium electrodes currently available.
Covalent nitrides are formed when group IIIAVIIA element are combined. The majority of their crystals consist of covalent bonding. Nitrogen oxides and nitrogen halos are the correct names for compounds that oxygen, group VIIIA elements, and nitrogen elements form. The covalent nitrides most commonly used are the nitrides from group IIIA elements and IVA (such as AlN, GaN and InN). The unit of structure is similar to that of a tetrahedron, and so is known as class Diamond nitride. They have a high hardness and melting point. The majority of them are semiconductors or insulators. They are used extensively in cutting instruments, high-temperature materials, microelectronics, and luminescent substances.
These nitrides form by transition metals belong to the metallic nitrides. The nitrogen atoms in these nitrides can also be called infill nitrides. This type of metal-type nitride is not a stoichiometric nitride, but its chemical composition may vary in a given range. The majority of metal-type nitrides have a NaCl-type structure and their chemical formula is the MN type. In general, it is a metal-like material with properties such as high hardness and melting point, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. It is well suited for use in catalytic and electrode materials, as well as cutting materials.
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