What is Manganese dioxide?
Manganese dioxide (MnO2) occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, about 62–63% of manganese. The most important use of MnO2 is in primary Leclanché (carbon–zinc) and alkaline batteries. This material is used to obtain the spinel structure of the cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries (e.g., LiMn2O4). MnO2 needed for the production of batteries must have high purity and high electrochemical activity. Among its several allotropic forms, electrochemical activity is the highest for γ-MnO2. Hence, it is the best material for battery applications. Furnace dust is a problematic by-product of the ferromanganese (FeMn) and silicomanganese (SiMn) industries. Its storage is a long-term environmental concern, as it requires efficient technologies for its recycling. The furnace dust contains high concentrations of manganese oxides, with up to 40% or more concentrate. The recycling of the dust back into the ferroalloy furnaces would not only reduce that environmental liability but also decrease the fresh ore consumption. Unfortunately, this is not possible due to the high volatile content of furnace dust and its fineness. Many manganese ores contain substantial amounts of potassium (up to 2–3%). Much of this volatilizes and reports to the fume during smelting. The concern regarding the recycling of the fume is that volatile transition metals, such as zinc, can build up due to repeated recycling. One of Elkem's submerged arc furnaces producing high carbon FeMn alloy had a severe eruption on December 9, 1992, due to an accumulation of volatiles, which caused unstable structure formations in the furnace.
There is limited literature on the topic of recycling FeMn or SiMn furnace fines for manganese recovery
The limited literature on recycling FeMn or SiMn furnace fines for manganese recovery, mainly through hydrometallurgical treatments. Nkosi et al. (2011) obtained a 49% Mn recovery rate from SiMn-submerged arc furnace dust through direct atmospheric leaching using a diluted sulfuric acid solution. De Arujo et al. (2006) studied the replacement of rhodochrosite ore with ferromanganese fines to produce EMD. The fines were directly digested in high concentrations of sulfuric acid, and the resultant solution was purified through pH adjustment, first using NH3 (for iron removal) and then a Na2S addition (for heavy metal removal). However, the study is mainly focused on the electrodeposition behavior of the purified digestion solution, with very little insight into the previous steps. Shen et al. (2007) and Hamano et al. (2008) proposed recycling routes for different dust samples generated by FeMn and SiMn production. However, both studies only focus on the recovery of zinc, which constitutes ≤1.5% of the dust. This study proposes an alternative hydrometallurgical process for utilizing FeMn furnace dust to produce high-purity electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD). An experimental comparison is made between direct reductive leaching of the fines, using a novel, cheap, and green organic, and direct acid leaching.
Production of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide
The ferromanganese alloy is produced through the smelting-reduction of manganese ores in submerged arc furnaces. Conventional MnO2 production requires the pre reduction of low-grade ores around 900 °C to convert the manganese oxides present in the ore into their respective acid soluble forms. Using dextrin, a cheap organic reductant, the direct or complete dissolution of the manganese in the furnace dust is possible without needing high temperature pre reduction. The leachate is then purified through pH adjustment and direct electrowinning for electrolytic manganese dioxide production.
Price of Manganese dioxide
Manganese dioxide particle size and purity will affect the product's Price, and the purchase volume can also affect the cost of Manganese dioxide. A large amount of large amount will be lower. The Price of Manganese dioxide is on our company's official website.
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