The biggest immediate challenge for the EU will be replenishing its depleted gas inventories. While the EU could still increase LNG imports from countries such as the US, such purchases would be more expensive.
Refilling natural gas storage space to historical average levels this year could cost 70 billion euros, a sevenfold increase, compared to 10 billion euros in previous years. “
A complete replacement for Russian gas is not only very expensive, but it also may not be possible.
In the next 12 months, there is little way to meet the demand for a “normal” year in the absence of Gazprom, which also includes Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose.
What is Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose HPMC?
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is a water-soluble polymer compound, also known as water-soluble resin or water-soluble polymer. It increases the consistency of the mixture by increasing the viscosity of the mixing water. It is a hydrophilic polymer material. It can be dissolved in water to form a solution or dispersion.
The role of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose HPMC in concrete
When the content of naphthalene-based superplasticizer increases, the addition of superplasticizer will reduce the dispersion resistance of fresh cement mortar. This is because the naphthalene-based superplasticizer is a surfactant. When the superplasticizer is added to the mortar, the superplasticizer is oriented on the surface of the cement particles so that the surface of the cement particles has the same electric charge. This electric repulsion makes the cement particles form The flocculation structure is dismantled, and the water wrapped in the structure is released, which will cause the loss of part of the cement. At the same time, it was found that with the increase of HPMC content, the dispersion resistance of freshly mixed cement mortar became better and better.
1. The addition of HPMC has an obvious retarding effect on the mortar mixture. With the increase of the content of HPMC, the setting time of the mortar is successively prolonged. Under the same content of HPMC, the mortar formed under water is better than that in the air. Longer setting times for molding. This feature is advantageous for underwater concrete pumping.
2. The freshly mixed cement mortar mixed with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose has good cohesive properties and almost no bleeding.
3. The content of HPMC and the water demand of mortar first decreased and then increased obviously.
4. The addition of water reducing agent improves the problem of increasing water demand of mortar, but its content must be reasonably controlled, otherwise the underwater resistance of freshly mixed cement mortar will sometimes be reduced.
5. There is little difference in structure between the cement paste specimens mixed with HPMC and the blank specimens, and there is little difference in the structure and compactness of the cement paste specimens poured in water and in the air. The specimens formed under water for 28d are slightly crispy. The main reason is the addition of HPMC, which greatly reduces the loss and dispersion of cement when pouring in water, but also reduces the compactness of cement stone. In the project, under the condition of ensuring the non-dispersion effect under water, the dosage of HPMC should be reduced as much as possible.
6. Adding HPMC underwater non-dispersible concrete admixture, controlling the dosage is beneficial to the strength. The pilot project shows that the strength ratio of concrete formed in water to that formed in air is 84.8%, and the effect is relatively significant.
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