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Nano diamond has been widely studied in biological, electronic and quantum engineering fields

View an overview of Nano diamond
The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are small diamonds that have a diameter of less than 1 micron. They can be produced by an explosive or meteorite impact. Due to their low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, high biocompatibility, and surface functionalization, the nano diamond is widely used in quantum, electronic, and biological engineering.

Structure of nano-diamond

It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. Many diffraction experiments have shown that diamond nanoparticles are either spherical, elliptic or both. A diamond cage is the core of diamond nanoparticles. It is mostly made of carbon. Although their core structure is identical to the diamond’s, diamond nanoparticles have a surface similar to graphite. The surface is mostly composed of carbon. However, there are small quantities of phenol and pyrrole as well as carboxylic, hydrol, and epoxy groups. There are sometimes defects in the structure and arrangement of diamond nanoparticles, such as nitrogen-vacancy center. Recently, it was found that diamond nanoparticles of smaller size have a tendency to contain nitrogen-vacancy centers.

Nano-diamond production methods

Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include electrochemical synthesis and ultrasonic. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high pressure decomposition of graphite, C3N4, at high temperature. For commercial production, Nano diamonds are now produced by detonation. The most common explosive used is trinitrotoluene with hexose.

Detonation is usually performed in a stainless steel sealed chamber that does not contain oxygen. It produces Nano diamonds along with other graphite compound averaging at 5 nm. Nano diamonds form in detonation synthesis without oxygen, at higher temperatures than 3000K (and pressures above 15 GPa) and greater temperatures than 3000K. To prevent the formation of diamond nanoparticles in the oxidation system, a rapid cooling is necessary. However, diamond remains the strongest phase of the process. Gas and liquid coolants are used for detonation, such as water and water-based foam, ice and argon. Detonation results in synthesis, which is made up of Nano diamonds and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to get rid of any remaining impurities. Commonly, SP2 and other metal impurities can be removed using gaseous oxygen treatment or solution-phase nitric acids oxidation.

Application prospect of Nano diamond

Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, temperature conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.

A material that has rich properties and connotations is Nano diamond, it is an area of immense opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research, production and testing. This material can be used to produce raw materials for the defense and petrochemical industries, as well as in electronic and mechanical, chemical, and other economic sectors. I believe there will soon be a widespread application of Nano diamond in many different industries.

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