Aerogel generally refers to a lightweight nanometer solid material in which nanometer-scale ultrafine particles aggregate with each other to form a nanoporous network structure, and the network pores are filled with a gaseous dispersion medium. The most common aerogel is silica aerogel. Silica aerogel is a lightweight nanoporous amorphous solid material with excellent thermal and thermal insulation properties. Its porosity is as high as 80-99.8%, the typical size of the pores is 1-100 nm, and the specific surface area is 200- 1000 m2/g, the density can be as low as 3 kg/m3, and the room temperature thermal conductivity can be as low as 0.012 W/ (m·k).
Properties of silica aerogel
1. Thermal insulation
Silica aerogel material has extremely low thermal conductivity, which can reach 0.013-0.016W/(m·K), which is lower than the thermal conductivity of static air (0.024W/(m·K)), which is higher than the corresponding inorganic insulating material is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. Even at a high temperature of 800°C, its thermal conductivity is only 0.043W/(m·K). It does not decompose at high temperatures, and no harmful gas is released. It is a green and environmentally friendly material. After Si02 silicon aerogel is compounded with various heat-resistant fibers, it can be made into various forms of insulation materials. It can be widely used in industry, construction, pipeline, automobile, aerospace, and other fields.
2. Sound insulation
Due to its low sound velocity, silicon aerogel is also an ideal acoustic delay or high-temperature sound insulation material. The material has a large acoustic impedance variable range and is an ideal acoustic resistance coupling material for ultrasonic probes.
3. Nonlinear optical properties
Due to the formation of quantum dot structure in the nano network of silicon aerogel, the results of the chemical vapor infiltration method doping Si and solution method doping C60 show that the dopant exists in the form of nanocrystalline particles, and strong visible light emission is observed. It provides strong evidence for the quantum confinement effect of porous silicon to emit light.
4. Filtration and catalytic properties
Nano-structured aerogel can also be used as a new type of gas filtration. The difference from other materials is that the material has uniform pore size distribution and high porosity. It is a high-efficiency gas filtration material. Due to the large surface area of the material, aerogel also has broad application prospects as a new type of catalyst or catalyst carrier.
5. Adjustability of refractive index
The refractive index of silicone aerogel is close to 1, and the ratio of the annihilation coefficient to infrared and visible light is more than 100. It can effectively transmit the visible part of sunlight and block the infrared part of it, making it an ideal transparency Thermal insulation materials have been used in solar energy utilization and building energy conservation.
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